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Flooding Case Study: LEDC - Bangladesh.

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Introduction

Flooding Case Study: LEDC - Bangladesh Sources - Video 'Living with flooding' (Video 46-4) Geofile - Bangladesh Flood Management (Factsheet 45) Living with floods - Bangladesh (Article) Location Bangladesh is located in south asia, adjacent to inida. Its location plays a major role in the occurrence of tropical storms and therefore the flooding. Having a coast to the warm waters of the indian oceans means tropical forms can form and attack the Bangladeshi coast. The Causes of the Flooding Bangladesh has always been a natural hotspot for flooding. There are, in general, two major causes of the flooding, the fluvial flooding and the cyclonic flooding. The major causing of the flooding is due to the fluvial snowmelt in the high Himalayas. When this is combined with the monsoon rain there is a peak amount of discharge in the three major rivers of the area. When it isn't the monsoon season, heavy rainfall on the hills and flood plains of Bangladesh causes similar results to monsoon rain. If anything this causes can be more damaging even though the flooding is less severe, people are less prepared outside of the monsoon season. Flash floods are caused by heavy rainfall in and flooding of the surrounding rivers. These have been made worse recently due to the increase in deforestation in the area. The other major source of flooding is down to the storm surge floods, cyclonic. ...read more.

Middle

The embankments are fitted with sluices, which are used to slow the rivers discharge and velocity, which means erosion in the river can be controlled as well. The embankments were built away from the river for two purposes. The first was to keep them away from the erosive power of the river, to maintain the embankment. But also this has the advantage that they are very inexpensive. The installation and maintenance is affordable even for an LEDC such as Bangladesh. It also means that the area between the river and embankment can be cultivated. The collected floodwater can even be used for the successful shrimp industry of Bangladesh. The Objections to the Flood Action Plan * When the embankments are breached the damage caused will be much greater because of the sudden nature of the discharge. Natural flooding would be more natural meaning the damage would be less. * The sluices have caused huge arguments. Many say they are too ineffective to work efficiently. People argue over who has the say about the use of the sluices as people downstream are effected by the decisions of that person. * Sudden breaches of the embankments may also deposit deep layers of infertile river sand over the land, dramatically decreasing fertility. * The algae naturally produced by the flooding will be affected meaning natural fertilizers are removed. ...read more.

Conclusion

This picture shows the newly built market town of Kutubdia that contains new concrete buildings, which are obviously safer for the residents. The defences show that there is now safety for people on the island. But apart from evacuating the coastal lowlands and living above 5m there are no strategies that will completely eliminate the prospect of flooding. Extra Information: Video * 29th April 1991 Tropical Cyclone hit east coast. * 140,000 died. * 1 in 3 drowned. * Low lying area, prone to flooding. * High density population, living near the coast on low land. * Earth wall protects to some extent. * Most Bangladesh is below 15m sea level. * Warm waters, above 27oC, provide frequent tropical storms. * Cyclone Bunkers were built on stilts to protect people from the rising floodwaters. * Warnings were issued, including local people to warm everyone about the approaching storm. * Surge broke embankment, people who hadn't gone to shelters were exposed. People live in vulnerable area for: * Fishing is rife by the coast. To earn sufficient money, the fishing is needed. * Farming is also present to some extent. * Prawn farming is good in salt-water areas, providing living for many. * Provides many jobs, as the packing and exporting of the fish and prawns are very important to Bangladesh. * This large amount of economic activity makes wages twice the national average. Plans for future: * Tree planting programs, help stabiles soil, protecting villages and embankments. * Earth Embankments. * Cyclones shelters. �80,000 each. * Public awareness of the shelters ...read more.

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