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Flooding on the Mississippi

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Introduction

Flooding on the Mississippi Causes, effects, consequences & management. Background: The Mississippi river is situated in the USA and flows through ten states; Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Arkansas, Tennessee, Louisiana, Mississippi. In total the Mississippi river covers 3733km. The drainage basin conditions of this river vary from day to day. That is why this river is very unpredictable. Causes of the 1993 flood: 1. Starting as early as the fall of 1992, heavier-than-usual rain and melting snow saturated the soil with moisture. When seasonal rains and snowmelt came in spring 1993, the water ran off into streams because it could not soak into the ground. So streams were already swollen when a rain-producing weather system stalled over the Midwest in June 1993, and unusually heavy rains fell in many places - often twice the normal summer amount. The rains lasted through August. 2. The waters overwhelmed the normal river channel, so serious flooding hit Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and other states in the Missouri and upper Mississippi basins, an area 500 miles long and 200 miles wide. ...read more.

Middle

It did just that by mid-july the level of the river had reached an all time high. Levees surrounding towns were but under tremendous pressure and they collapsed. With nothing to hold the river back it was certain that another flood was about to hit America because of the Mississippi river. Consequences of the 1993 flood: 1. Dams and reservoirs were used to reduce the flood risk in the Mississippi basin. They used the Missouri river to build six huge dams. These made a chain of 105 reservoirs which prevented flooding, provided a water supply and hydro-electricity. They were built because they took excess water out of the Mississippi river. If they were not built then much more water would have entered the Mississippi, making the floods of 1993 even worse. 2. Afforestation. This is the opposite to the cause that I mentioned earlier on. This means planting trees and leaving permeable surfaces on the surface of the flood plain because trees delay run-off and reduce the amount of water reaching the river. ...read more.

Conclusion

The layers were built up until the bank was covered from the deepest point of the river above the flood level. Management techniques used on the Mississippi: In its natural state a river can be managed or controlled to make them more useful and less disruptive to human activity. 1. Dams or weirs can be built to control the flow, store water or extract energy from the river. 2. Levees may be built to prevent run-off excess river water in times of flood 3. Canals can be built to connect rivers to one another for water transfer or navigation. 4. River courses may be modified to improve navigation, or straightened to increase the flow rate. 5. These were also mentioned in the consequences because they are both needs of management and consequences. They are needed as they have used a management technique as ship navigation. Success of the management techniques: The given management techniques were combating all the causes of the flood. So I think that really the management techniques should have been a success. HANNAH NEESAM 10D ...read more.

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