• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Flooding on the Mississippi

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Flooding on the Mississippi Causes, effects, consequences & management. Background: The Mississippi river is situated in the USA and flows through ten states; Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Arkansas, Tennessee, Louisiana, Mississippi. In total the Mississippi river covers 3733km. The drainage basin conditions of this river vary from day to day. That is why this river is very unpredictable. Causes of the 1993 flood: 1. Starting as early as the fall of 1992, heavier-than-usual rain and melting snow saturated the soil with moisture. When seasonal rains and snowmelt came in spring 1993, the water ran off into streams because it could not soak into the ground. So streams were already swollen when a rain-producing weather system stalled over the Midwest in June 1993, and unusually heavy rains fell in many places - often twice the normal summer amount. The rains lasted through August. 2. The waters overwhelmed the normal river channel, so serious flooding hit Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and other states in the Missouri and upper Mississippi basins, an area 500 miles long and 200 miles wide. ...read more.

Middle

It did just that by mid-july the level of the river had reached an all time high. Levees surrounding towns were but under tremendous pressure and they collapsed. With nothing to hold the river back it was certain that another flood was about to hit America because of the Mississippi river. Consequences of the 1993 flood: 1. Dams and reservoirs were used to reduce the flood risk in the Mississippi basin. They used the Missouri river to build six huge dams. These made a chain of 105 reservoirs which prevented flooding, provided a water supply and hydro-electricity. They were built because they took excess water out of the Mississippi river. If they were not built then much more water would have entered the Mississippi, making the floods of 1993 even worse. 2. Afforestation. This is the opposite to the cause that I mentioned earlier on. This means planting trees and leaving permeable surfaces on the surface of the flood plain because trees delay run-off and reduce the amount of water reaching the river. ...read more.

Conclusion

The layers were built up until the bank was covered from the deepest point of the river above the flood level. Management techniques used on the Mississippi: In its natural state a river can be managed or controlled to make them more useful and less disruptive to human activity. 1. Dams or weirs can be built to control the flow, store water or extract energy from the river. 2. Levees may be built to prevent run-off excess river water in times of flood 3. Canals can be built to connect rivers to one another for water transfer or navigation. 4. River courses may be modified to improve navigation, or straightened to increase the flow rate. 5. These were also mentioned in the consequences because they are both needs of management and consequences. They are needed as they have used a management technique as ship navigation. Success of the management techniques: The given management techniques were combating all the causes of the flood. So I think that really the management techniques should have been a success. HANNAH NEESAM 10D ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology essays

  1. Case Study: The Mississippi River Flood of 1993

    so less rainfall was absorbed by soils and more ran-off into streams. The draining of riverine wetlands and the construction of levees had altered the river system over the previous century. Weather Conditions The abnormal rainfall was attributed to a weather system formed when warm moist air from the Gulf

  2. The 1993 Mississippi Flood Report.

    Six huge dams have created a 1600km chain of 105 reservoirs which, apart from preventing flooding, provide a water supply and hydro-electricity. If thee dams had not been built then much more water would have been added to the Mississippi, making the 1993 flood even worse 2.Afforistation Vast forests have

  1. With references to either one river or one river flood event, examine the causes ...

    Shrewsbury suffered it worst flood in over thirty years. Two bridges in the town were closed. The wet weather also caused major problems for sporting events. B) River basin management is the management of the area surrounding the river. This may include; hydroelectric power stations, dams, building of levee's, the dredging of a river bed and river walls.

  2. To assess whether the modified channel of the river ash is effective in reducing ...

    However dams are an eye sore and can flood valleys up stream of the dam. A reservoir can store excess flood water so it is not flowing through the river at risk and making the water level rise so it could flood.

  1. To what extent the flood alleviation scheme has had on the environment and people ...

    The results show that the beach is larger on the South side of the beach. On the North side of the beach there was only 9.50m of beach we could measure, whereas on the south side there was nearly 24m beach we were able to measure.

  2. Do the Characteristics of a river change downstream?

    It was also long enough to not be affected by the reaction times of the participants dropping the oranges from the bridge. Adversities Occasionally the oranges were dropped into the river at a wrong angle or at the wrong place completely meaning that they were sent of course sometimes hitting

  1. "The 1993 Mississippi floods were caused by hard river engineering" Discuss this statement.

    Even though small risings in the rivers surface level can be controlled, artificial levees actually increase the risk of much more devastating floods that occur when the man-made mounds are breached. The greater gravitational potential energy that the river has at such a height means that any overflowing of such

  2. Flooding on the river Lea is a natural phenomenon which needs to be managed.

    During the mid 1700's the navigation was much improved that land surrounding the Lee near Stratford was ideally placed for industries that London did not want right on it's doorstep, such as slaughterhouses or gas works, but did want products from.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work