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geographical understanding

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Geographical understanding All settlements are central places. A settlement is a place where people live. Settlements come in lots of different sizes. A settlement may be as small as a single house in a remote area or as a large as a mega city (a city with over 10 million residents).A settlement may be permanent or temporary. An example of a temporary settlement would be a refugee camp. However, a temporary settlement may become permanent over time. This has happened to many refugee camps that have been built in conflict zones. The reasons why a settlement developed or was built can be thought of as its function. For example, the settlement of Ormskirk is a market town. As well as coming in a variety of sizes, settlements also come in a variety of shapes. ...read more.


As you move up the hierarchy the size of the settlement increases and the frequency - the number of similar settlements - decreases. As you can see from the diagram below, there are more cities than conurbations, more towns than cities, and more villages than towns. Sphere of influence and hierarchy of settlement All settlements have a sphere of influence which will vary in an area according to the position of the central place in the hierarchy of settlements. The number of services that a settlement provides will increase with settlement size. Small settlements will only provide low order services such as a post office, doctors and newsagents. Large towns, cities and conurbations will provide low and high order services such as leisure centres, chain stores and hospitals. Settlements are ranked by Population Size; the range and number of services and the sphere of influence or area served by the settlement. ...read more.


City: Large Railway Station, Large Shopping Complex, Cathedral, Opticians and Jewelers, Large Hospital, Large Football Team, University, Theatre, County Hall, Airport. Conurbation: Capital Cathedrals, Government Buildings, Banking HQ, Railway Termini, Museums and Art Galleries, Large Theatre, Shopping Centre, Several Universities, International Airport. Large places provide HIGH and LOW order goods and services e.g. Furniture stores, Theatres which a high number of people Will use. Small places provide LOW order goods and services e.g. a local newsagent which a lower number of people will use. I expect Ormskirk's sphere of influence to cover the north west of England and to have a radius of 20 km which will reach Liverpool but I think it might be wider because of Manchester. I think Ormskirk will compete with larger settlements like Liverpool, Preston and Manchester because it they are high order settlements and have a large sphere of influence where as Ormskirk is a low/medium order settlement. ...read more.

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