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Geography investigation - The River Skirfare located in the Littondale region in the Yorkshire Dales National Park.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

SECTION 1 Hypotheses; Hypothesis 1; 'Bedload will decrease in its size and angularity downstream'. By this, I mean that the material being carried, eroded and transported by the river will be smaller and more rounded downstream, than the material upstream. Hypothesis 2; 'The efficiency of the river will increase as you look further downstream.' This is where the river's ability to carry and transport material is greater downstream, but not upstream. Hence, we can say that upstream, has a poorer efficiency, than that downstream. Hypothesis 3; 'The velocity of the river will increase further downstream.' This would mean that the further down the river you travel the greater the surface speed of the river. Gradient will also be of great use as there will be an inverse relationship between the two variables, velocity and gradient. The further downstream, gradient will start to decrease. In other words the land around the river will be much more level downstream, but steeper upstream. SECTION 2 Introduction; This investigation sets out to prove or disprove three hypotheses. The hypotheses have been developed around the study of a river and hence, set out to focus on the processes and changes in the river downstream. To understand any possible changes or processes in as much detail as possible I have chosen three hypotheses that I think will help me achieve this best. These are stated above, but more concisely are, as follows; * 'Bedload will decrease in its size and angularity downstream'. * 'The efficiency of the river will increase as you look further downstream.' * 'The velocity of the river will increase further downstream.' These I feel will give me the best possible understanding and evidence of the processes that are carried out in a river landform. This investigation has taken place on two points on the River Skirfare. The River Skirfare is located in the Littondale region in the Yorkshire Dales National Park. ...read more.

Middle

This makes it a little more difficult to display, especially as the results are either; angular, sub-angular, sub-rounded, rounded or well rounded. This can be seen in the stone chart shown earlier in this investigation. To get a round this problem I have assigned each measurement of angularity with a number, from 1 to 5. The most angular ('Angular' on the stone chart) being assigned to the number 1. The least angular ('Well-Rounded' on the stone chart) being assigned to the number 5. This can be seen in the table below more clearly; Number. Angularity (taken from the stone chart) 1 Angular 2 Sub-angular 3 Sub-rounded 4 Rounded 5 Well- Rounded From this it is possible to work out an average in the angularity of the material at the locations Halton Gill and Arncliffe. This can be seen in the following tables and graphs; Halton Gill Distance From Bank (L-R) (meters) Stone Chart Value Numerical Value 0 Angular 1 100 Sub-angular 2 250 Angular 1 400 Sub-rounded 3 550 Angular 1 700 Sub-rounded 3 850 Sub-angular 2 1000 Sub-angular 2 Average´┐Ż 1.875 Arncliffe Distance From Bank (L-R) (meters) Stone Chart Value Numerical Value 0 Sub-rounded 3 100 Rounded 4 300 Sub-rounded 3 500 Sub-angular 2 600 Sub-rounded 3 800 Sub-rounded 3 1000 Sub-angular 2 1200 Rounded 4 Average´┐Ż 3 These tables show the result of the method of assigning numbers to the angularity scales. These can now be put into graphs. I have chosen to represent the data into 'Radar' graphs. This is because they make the data easy to read. We can see from the data that the angularity of the material at Halton Gill is much more angular than that at Arncliffe. This would mean that the material at Arncliffe is more rounded. The fact that the material at Halton Gill only twice goes above two on the 'Angularity Scale' against the material at Arncliffe reaching as low as two only twice shows this clearly. ...read more.

Conclusion

It is these two that create the larger more angular sized material and hence occur more frequently upstream. Following these processes are attrition and corrosion. These occur more frequently downstream where there is greater energy. It is this processes that round off the material making it less angular. Attrition, as shown in the diagram is the collision of material within the river. Corrosion is the chemical reactions that occur between the river water and the material- this erodes the material down. The importance of the amount of energy must not be under-estimated in referring to this hypothesis. More will be made of this later but, the essence of this principle is that more erosional processes take place downstream where there is a greater amount of energy for them to occur, and less occur upstream where there is not as greater amount of energy. Linked with this hypothesis is the third and last hypothesis concerning velocity. All three will be brought together in the conclusion which follows this section. * 'The efficiency of the river will increase as you look further downstream.' The data for this section was by far the largest with a vast collection. There was the Cross-sectional Area, Wetted Perimeter and the Hydraulic radius. Within this hypothesis there is a great deal of processes. These will be dealt with as they come up through looking at the various data in no particular order. Defining efficiency is the best starting point to understanding the following explanation of results and processes involved in them. A rivers efficiency is simply how good it is at overcoming the forces of friction that are placed upon it. Hence, the processes to be concerned with in this section while analysing results are the processes or factors that will affect friction on the river. The cross profile of a river shows much about how well the river can overcome the forces of friction. There are various cross profiles attached to this investigation. However one of these can be seen on page 1 1 Geography Module; River Studies Steve Newby. Mr. Shipton. ...read more.

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