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"Geological activity is responsible for hazards which produce some extreme impacts in terms of loss of life and damage to property. If the consequences of such hazards are to be reduced, then appropriate management is necessary".

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Introduction

"Geological activity is responsible for hazards which produce some extreme impacts in terms of loss of life and damage to property. If the consequences of such hazards are to be reduced, then appropriate management is necessary". With reference to either volcanoes or earthquakes discuss the above statement. In your answer you should refer to examples and * briefly describe how geological activity produces such extreme impacts * show how the impacts of earthquakes and volcanic activity vary with the scale of the hazard and other factors * discuss the management strategies used to reduce the impact of volcanic eruptions or earthquakes * assess the success of such management strategies. The vast majority of earthquakes occur at plate boundaries because that is where sufficient stresses build up. The most powerful are at destructive plate boundaries where continental and oceanic plates converge e.g. ...read more.

Middle

The strength of an earthquake can have very different impacts depending on the countries wealth. The wealthier a country is the more advanced warnings they have and educated they are. The infrastructure and buildings standards are also higher in wealthier countries. In Maharashbra, India in 1993, 10,00 people died from poorly constructed buildings collapsed whereas in L.A in 1993 only 60 people died when a similar sized earthquake occurred. The only damage was to car parks as they are not earthquake proof. The response of authorities is another factor influencing the impact of an earthquake. While authorities like San Francisco have sophisticated land use zoning, where danger zones are devoted to tourist land use, such as parks ect. There are other authorities where building codes sometimes don't even exist. Human activity can trigger an earthquake. ...read more.

Conclusion

The success of such management strategies depends on the scale of the earthquake, the higher on the Richter scale the less effective management strategies seem to be. Earthquake drills and advice given by agencies are often ignored due to panic and shock. This causes more hazards such as little fires that can be put out safely at the time and aren't become large fires. The demanding constructions standards have only been in place since the 1980's so buildings and infrastructure constructed before then collapse. In the Great Kanto earthquake in 1923, 700,000 homes and 9000 factories were destroyed. There were many management strategies in place when the Great Hanshin earthquake occurred but the quake still led to widespread destruction to buildings and infrastructure and many lost lives in the Kobe Oscar area in Japan on 17-1-1995. This just shows that earthquakes can still have a big impact even when management strategies are in place. But could it have been worse if there weren't any at all? ...read more.

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