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Geomorphic Landforms and Processes

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Introduction

Geomorphic Landforms and Processes 2. Using OS Maps from 1936 and 1965 (i) The change that runs from 890134 to 910153 is that a road was built during the early 1950s. This road runs parallel to the old sea wall and was built to allow access and transport materials whilst it was being built. (ii) The core of the old sea wall is clay, which was extracted from 903146 and created three man-made lakes at this point. (iii) From 890132 to 91053 the groynes on the beach have become shorter and more numerous. 3.The coastline east of Cliff End is mainly comprised of a beach. On the whole it has been advancing at a rate of one mile over 110 years, a rate of sixteen yards a year or 14.624 metres. These figures are from the widest point. This coastline is west of Rye and is home to Camber Castle, which was built by Henry VIII as a coastal defence. It now sits one-mile inland. The entire coastline has not advanced; the land west of Winchelsea has retreated by 440 yards since 1540, this is an average of 4 yard a year or 3.656m. The coastline west of Cliff End is mainly cliffs. At the widest point the cliffs have retreated by 50m in 70 years, or 0.71m a year. It is an unequal recession with most of the erosion happening towards the middle of the cliffs. ...read more.

Middle

The cliffs at Fairlight Cove are a clay and sandstone mix, but mainly sandstone. There has been a landslip which was graceful, one section of the cliff has simply moved down. It is a low cliff with not too much to erode and is about twice the height of a house. Fairlight Cove also has many houses along the cliff edge. Below one cottage, Haddocks cottage, runs another geological fault, in fact Fairlight Cove sits between two geological faults. 5b.At Cliff End the top of the cliff is no longer eroding because grass and plants can be seen to be growing and overhanging. These plants cause freeze/thaw erosion because their roots crack the rock and then water collects there. The water freezes and expands, cause the cracks to expand and sometimes chunks of rock break off. Rock is also blown away as the loose bits become exposed and weakened. The cliffs at Cliff End have eroded unevenly due to the fact that they are a clay and sandstone mix, this means that the clay has eroded faster then the sandstone and so creates a jagged effect. At the foot of the cliff there is a wave cut platform and undercutting which has been formed by abrasion. Abrasion is when the waves use debris and pebbles to erode rock faces. This abrasion can form caves over a long period of time, which is what has happened at the base of the cliff. ...read more.

Conclusion

This was for a 550m barrier of interlocking concrete blocks of about 7m high along the base of the cliff. 70% of the cost was funded by the government, 12% by the County Council and the remaining 18% by Rother District Council. The scheme was altered to so that a reef of granite rocks was constructed instead, these blocks trap shingle between them and absorb the energy of the waves. They also prevent the waves from reaching the base of the cliff. It can be seen that the high tide does not reach the base of the cliff because there are plants growing there. The granite was imported from Scandinavia, as this was the cheapest option. Granite is very resistant and so will not erode easily, however the boulders at the bottom have been smoothed by attrition. This shows how much force the cliff was exposed to. The houses at Fairlight Cove which have moved or were at risk from the erosion of the cliffs are, Windover, Bishopsgarth, Dormers, The Ark, Greengates, Grey Wings, Merrylands and Haddocks Cottage. Until the end of the 1980s The Ark was a very expensive house with nice gardens. In 1987 there was a bad storm and overnight the cliff eroded up to their backdoor. The owners could not sell it or live in it and could not claim insurance, since it does not cover erosion. Greengates has stayed where it was, 10-12ft from the edge, Charlotte Keane 10G ...read more.

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