• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Geomorphological hazards at a variety of scales should always be considered when planning the location of the settlement and economic activity. Discuss.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Geomorphological hazards at a variety of scales should always be considered when planning the location of the settlement and economic activity. Discuss. Geomorphological hazards should always been considered when planning settlement locations. This is mainly due to the extreme and deadly effects of these hazards for both humans and the environment. Volcanoes and earthquakes are the major hazards to contemplate. While the death and destruction caused by earthquakes can be quite substantial in urban areas, they usually only leave small scale physical scars on the landscape, with open cracks in the ground and some local land or lake level changes. Whereas volcanoes can be incredibly destructive, destroying anything in the erupted lava's path whether human or natural vegetation. When the lava cools it leaves bare rock, vegetation growth is then relatively slow and it may take many plant successions before the climatic climax vegetation is reached. This can prove particularly devastating in Ledc's where agriculture is the main income source and these large areas of newly created volcanic desert prove impossible to cultivate on. ...read more.

Middle

High buildings such as skyscrapers are more likely to remain standing if they are built using steel caged structures, small areas between each support, deep foundations on solid rock and a rubber pad placed between the building and its foundations. This can prove very expensive and is usually only seen in countries of high economic development where the settlement structure and population density are very dense and therefore after an earthquake the property damage would usually greatly outweigh the loss of life While on the other hand many Ledc's in earthquake zones cannot afford these expensive construction costs and even if they could there are sometimes corrupt government officials that divert the money elsewhere. Due to many of these Ledc's very high population densities while low levels of economic activity, the prominent feature after an earthquake would be the large loss of life. I have previously mentioned the negative effects of geomorphological hazards, but there are some positive impacts of these on humans. Mineral and metal reserves of copper, tin, silver and zinc as a result of volcanic activity provide valuable export trade for many developing countries e.g. ...read more.

Conclusion

So this attracts a large number of people to these areas for the farming opportunities, with some of the highest populations in the world located on volcanic soils. Below Vesuvius where they had been previous of volcanic eruptions leaving fine ash deposits is intensity farmed for wheat, tomatoes, maize, grapes, peaches and various others, and these yields produced are much higher than the national average. So for these positive reasons that I have mentioned including tourism, export trade, pollution free HEP and fertile soils. It is very logical that many people want to live and work in an area of geomorphological interest and that governments want to choose these locations for settlement and tourism opportunities. But with these benefits come risks, in the form of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions together with the secondary effects of mud flows which can cause extensive damage to both property and human life. And as these events are incredibly difficult to predict when and of what magnitude they will be, it makes living in these areas vulnerable and dependent upon nature. So I believe any government should carefully weigh up both the financial benefits and the possible loss of human life before they should choose a location for settlement or economic activity. Stephen Stewart ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hazardous Environments section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hazardous Environments essays

  1. Earthquakes are considered one of the most deadly natural catastrophes that can affect human ...

    1899 Yakutat Bay earthquake, Alaska 8.3-8.6 (estimate) 1906 San Francisco earthquake, California 7.7-8.25 (estimate) 1960 Chilean earthquake, Chile 9.6 (disagreement on magnitude) 1964 Alaskan earthquake, Alaska 8.5 1971 San Fernando earthquake, California 6.5 1976 Tangshan earthquake, China 8.2 1985 Mexico City earthquake, Mexico 8.1 1988 Armenian earthquake, Armenia 6.9 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, California 7.1 1990 Northwest

  2. Suggest why droughts have severe impacts on people and the environment.

    Banks and people working for them will also be affected, as there is a loss of national economic growth, which slows down the economic development of the effected area. People have less money to spend as their jobs are being cut or they are not able to produce enough to sell.

  1. Mount St. Helens - Natural disasters.

    concluded that there was an increased possibility of a large avalanche on the north flank. April 18 - Steam plumes only rose to about 500 feet above the crater and seismicity remained moderate. As the volcano settled into a "holding pattern" the USGS went from daily information releases to twice weekly.

  2. Knowledge of plate tectonics helps us to understand geomorphological processes but has not significantly ...

    Another example comes from the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004, where so many countries were devastated by this as there was too little time to react, however countries such as Kenya could react quickly as they had been warned and they reacted quickly by moving thousands of Tourists off of their beaches.

  1. Explain why tectonic processes produce a variety of contrasting landscapes 70 marks

    The compressional stress which acts upon the earth has also allowed folding to be exposed throughout the island, where the rock strata has been deformed to produce a series of anticlines and synclines which characterise the landscape. External igneous land formations Landscapes can be influenced by other igneous featured which have not been formed due to plate tectonics.

  2. Tectonic Activity - A general introduction

    Pyroclasts ? solid volcanic materials: Volcanic ash (< 2mm) Lapilli (2-64mm) ? sometimes called cinders Blocks and bombs (> 64mm) Pyroclastic flows ? mixture of superheated rock (~ 8000C) and hot gases that rapidly flows down the side of a volcano ? gas-saturated lava comes near the earth?s surface ?

  1. To what extent is magnitude the main factor to influence the type and level ...

    Also as the homes are all packed together it created a harder job for any emergency services to reach people trapped in mountainous areas (Guardian, 2010). Due to the high levels of debris of mud. The geographical characteristics could also have an effect on the impact of the earthquake as

  2. The World Distribution of Population is as important as the world distribution of areas ...

      Tectonic activity distribution refers to how the movements in the Earth&#39;s plates lead to distinctive areas and patterns where seismic activity occurs, leading to events such as tsunamis, volcanoes and earthquakes. In the map below, it is evident that these features of tectonic activity, occur along plate boundaries as these are the causation for seismic activity.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work