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"Glaciated Uplands are landscapes of erosion: glaciated lowlands are landscapes of deposition" examine the validity of this statement with reference to glaciated areas you have studied

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Introduction

"Glaciated Uplands are landscapes of erosion: glaciated lowlands are landscapes of deposition" examine the validity of this statement with reference to glaciated areas you have studied Arran is an ideal place to look at when examining the validity of the statement. During the Devensian Glacial, the ice sheet covering Britain reached its furthest extent, totally covering Arran. This helped to shape the landscape. In around 11,000BP the Loch Lomond Readvance occurred. This time Arran was not covered by an ice sheet but its valley glaciers grew. This formed many of the features still clearly seen on the island today. They show fresh and visible signs of the glacial erosion and deposition that once occurred. Glacial erosion is caused by ice movement combined with material within it. One type of erosion is abrasion. This occurs when pieces of rock held within the ice rub against other pieces of rock wearing them down. Another type of erosion is plucking. This occurs when ice freezes onto a piece of rock on the valley side. When the glacier moves away it may then be broken off. For these processes to occur it helps to have a steep gradient, as this will lead to ice flow. A harsh climate is also needed, which is cold, to encourage ice formation and accumulation. These conditions are often found in upland areas. ...read more.

Middle

The material can no longer be held, so is deposited to form a crescent shape mound. It commonly occurs in lowland areas as this is where conditions for melting tend to be found. It is also likely to be where the glacier reached its furthest extent. Another example of a lowland depositional feature is an outwash plain. Glen Catacol is an example that can be found in North Arran. An outwash plain is composed of gravels, sands and clays. They are a stratified and sorted deposit. In general the material gets smaller the further it is away from the snout. They are formed from materials deposited by melt water streams. Outwash plains tend to be quite flat and wide, they can reach up to 10km in length. The previous examples have all supported the statement. There are, however, some examples of features that don't support the statement. Striations are one such feature. They are erosional features caused by abrasion. A rock found at the base of the glacier can not be easily pressed into the ice so will scratch the rock it passes over. The scratches are very fine and narrow. They can vary in length from 1cm to 1 metre. The problem arises as they can be found wherever the ice has flowed; as this can be in both upland and lowland areas it goes against the statement. ...read more.

Conclusion

Once the material had been deposited it may then have been streamlined by later ice movement. There are a few examples in the Lake District. There are actually quite a few landforms that go against the argument of the statement. When looking at how many depositional and erosional features are formed, we can see that whether they are in an upland are lowland area is often not really relevant. Often there are other factors that affect where they can be found. Climate is an important factor to look at. It is not surprising that many of the erosional features in lowland areas have disappeared, as it is so long since the ice was found there. The Loch Lomond Readvance didn't really affect the lowland areas and since that is the last time glaciers were present in Arran the erosional features are bound to be more prominent in upland areas. Also many of the depositional features that formed in the upland areas have been more easily weathered as the climate tends to be harsher at higher altitudes. Although in many cases the statement is correct, there are many cases where it is not. It contrasts upland and lowland areas and suggests that erosional and depositional features can not occur in the same location. In many ways it appears true as more erosional features are probably found in upland areas and more depositional feature in upland areas. The reasons behind there location though, is often more to do with the climate. Mary Fleming ...read more.

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