• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Global Hazard Patterns

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Global Hazard Patterns This shows the distribution of hazards and their various causes and impacts; hazards are divided into Geophysical as they have to do with tectonic processes and hydro-meteorological as it involves the climate Geophysical Hazards Earthquakes- Most earthquakes are concentrated around plate boundaries; the more powerful earthquakes are located along destructive or conservative plate boundaries. As in a conservative plate boundary the plates are parallel to the plate margin so they slide past each other and for a destructive plate boundary the plates are converging. The fundamental explanation of their occurrences as with geophysical hazards has to do with the knowledge of plate tectonics. At destructive plate boundaries, oceanic crust are being subducted beneath a continental plate it produces various earthquakes types. The force as the plates meet causes stresses in the crust, then its pressure is suddenly released causing the ground above to shake violently thus resulting in what is formerly known as an earthquake. ...read more.

Middle

Examples include Mt St Helens in Northwestern USA and the Soufriere Hills in Montserrat. Volcanoes can also be present at hotspots; which are localized areas of the lithosphere which have an unusual high heat flow, for example, the volcanic Hawaiian Islands. However the largest and most fatal volcanoes are primarily on plate boundaries, sometimes concentrated in a certain area, like the "Ring of fire" on the Pacific plate and its surrounding plates. These volcanoes often occur due to spreading ridges, causing gaps which magma flows up. Volcanoes in this area usually follow earthquakes, which are also more frequent here than on faults. Tsunami - associated with earthquakes and only affect coastal areas e.g. Hawaii and Indonesia. Hydro-meteorological Hazards Flood - are mostly due to excessive rainfall associated with atmospheric processes, so are distributed where this is common; these areas where monsoon rain and cyclones are widespread. ...read more.

Conclusion

A secondary effect of a drought is Fire, also known as Wildfires. A wildfire is an uncontrolled fire often occurring in wild land areas, but which can also consume houses or agricultural resources. They are common in much of the world where the climates are sufficiently moist to allow the growth of trees, but feature dry, hot periods when fallen branches, leaves and other material can dry out and become highly flammable. Wildfires are also common in grasslands and scrublands. Examples include Western USA and Australia. Hurricanes - are violent storms between 200 and 700km in diameter, occurring in latitudes 5-20 degrees north and south of the equator and once generated, they tend to move westward. They mostly occur over warm oceans in order that the Coriolis effect can cause the rotation of air. Both [ Geophysical and Hydro-meteorological Avalanches & Landslides - areas prone to landslides are mountainous and experience landslides after abnormally heavy rain and or seismic activity. Moreover, avalanches are concentrated in high mountainous areas such as Southern Alps of New Zealand or the Rockies of North America. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hazardous Environments section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hazardous Environments essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Explain the increasing frequency of Hydro-meteorological Hazards.

    3 star(s)

    In August 2005, Hurricane Katrina caused a storm surge, which affected a coastline 2,034km (1,264 miles) long. The huge flow of water led to floods up to 7 metres deep in the city of New Orleans, many towns were completely destroyed across three whole states in America.

  2. Describe the global distribution of earthquakes.

    Although considerable advances have been made in the field of geological hazard prediction, many geophysicists feel that accurate prediction of earthquakes may no longer be regarded as an achievable goal. Increasingly scientists and hazard managers are turning their attention to improving and adapting buildings and infrastructures that will withstand earthquakes.

  1. Examine the processes which give rise to one of the following types of hazard:

    Looking at this drawing of two plates colliding is like looking at a single frame in a slow-motion movie of two cars crashing into each other.

  2. Suggest why droughts have severe impacts on people and the environment.

    the lack of availability of water, this result in high livestock mortality rates. An example of animals affected by drought, is frogs, as they need water to lay their eggs in, and then for the tadpoles to survive in as they develop.

  1. Compare and contrast the Philippines and Californian hotspots, giving an opinion as to which ...

    It is also very mountainous inland, and deforestation on the hillsides leaves many areas vulnerable to landslides. One earthquake in 2006 triggered landslides, a flood and a local tsunami 3 feet high. Another relatively minor earthquake was one of the causes of a catastrophic mudslide, killing1150 people.

  2. The Global Distribution of Geophysical Hazards

    Fig.3 Population distribution 2000 Fig.3 shows the relative populations in each country. It becomes clear by comparing Fig. 2 with Fig.3 that there are some countries whose dense populations are very rarely threatened by natural disaster. For example Europe contains a significant proportion of the world's population but is almost invisible on fig.2.

  1. Using an example, outline the effects of a tsunami and how the hazard can ...

    Conversely, countries to the north of the tremor with similar proximity, such as Bangladesh and Myanmar were hardly affected at all with minimal casualties and only minor damage to infrastructure. Initial estimates value the total number of fatalities around 230,000 (according to the U.S.

  2. California and the Phillippines - Hazard Hotspots and Human Management of Risks

    This is further implemented by the use of social media like AlertSF. 3. Education : All schools and workplaces need to make sure that they students or employees have undergone an earthquake training so they know how to protect themselves during an earthquake.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work