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Global Hazard Patterns

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Global Hazard Patterns This shows the distribution of hazards and their various causes and impacts; hazards are divided into Geophysical as they have to do with tectonic processes and hydro-meteorological as it involves the climate Geophysical Hazards Earthquakes- Most earthquakes are concentrated around plate boundaries; the more powerful earthquakes are located along destructive or conservative plate boundaries. As in a conservative plate boundary the plates are parallel to the plate margin so they slide past each other and for a destructive plate boundary the plates are converging. The fundamental explanation of their occurrences as with geophysical hazards has to do with the knowledge of plate tectonics. At destructive plate boundaries, oceanic crust are being subducted beneath a continental plate it produces various earthquakes types. The force as the plates meet causes stresses in the crust, then its pressure is suddenly released causing the ground above to shake violently thus resulting in what is formerly known as an earthquake. ...read more.


Examples include Mt St Helens in Northwestern USA and the Soufriere Hills in Montserrat. Volcanoes can also be present at hotspots; which are localized areas of the lithosphere which have an unusual high heat flow, for example, the volcanic Hawaiian Islands. However the largest and most fatal volcanoes are primarily on plate boundaries, sometimes concentrated in a certain area, like the "Ring of fire" on the Pacific plate and its surrounding plates. These volcanoes often occur due to spreading ridges, causing gaps which magma flows up. Volcanoes in this area usually follow earthquakes, which are also more frequent here than on faults. Tsunami - associated with earthquakes and only affect coastal areas e.g. Hawaii and Indonesia. Hydro-meteorological Hazards Flood - are mostly due to excessive rainfall associated with atmospheric processes, so are distributed where this is common; these areas where monsoon rain and cyclones are widespread. ...read more.


A secondary effect of a drought is Fire, also known as Wildfires. A wildfire is an uncontrolled fire often occurring in wild land areas, but which can also consume houses or agricultural resources. They are common in much of the world where the climates are sufficiently moist to allow the growth of trees, but feature dry, hot periods when fallen branches, leaves and other material can dry out and become highly flammable. Wildfires are also common in grasslands and scrublands. Examples include Western USA and Australia. Hurricanes - are violent storms between 200 and 700km in diameter, occurring in latitudes 5-20 degrees north and south of the equator and once generated, they tend to move westward. They mostly occur over warm oceans in order that the Coriolis effect can cause the rotation of air. Both [ Geophysical and Hydro-meteorological Avalanches & Landslides - areas prone to landslides are mountainous and experience landslides after abnormally heavy rain and or seismic activity. Moreover, avalanches are concentrated in high mountainous areas such as Southern Alps of New Zealand or the Rockies of North America. ...read more.

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