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How and why do the beaches vary at Barmston, Mappleton and Hornsea?

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Introduction

How and why do the beaches vary at Barmston, Mappleton and Hornsea? Introduction The Holderness coast refers to a section of the East Coast from Flamborough Head to Spurn Point. The total distance of this coastline is 50 kilometres from the North to the South. The rocks in this area consist mainly of softer rocks, such as Glacial till, Chalk, Boulder Clay, Gravel and Sand. This is one of the factors that makes the Holderness coastline one of the fastest eroding coastlines in Britain. About 2 metres per year is lost into the sea. Along a 17km stretch of this coastline are 3 locations which interest me: the small settlement of Barmston, the coastal town of Hornsea and a small village called Mappleton - They have all been affected by the rapidly eroding coastline. At each of those places, sea defences are in place to a certain extent to help prevent specific areas from eroding. These have a great impact on the beaches and cliffs. Usually creating beaches to the North of the defences and speeding up the rate of erosion to the South of the defences. The reason for this is that the action of the waves is from a North Easterly direction towards the coast, the direction of sediment travels South to the spit, Spurn head. Barmston, Mappleton and Hornsea are so varied due to many factors. I aim to investigate a number of factors about each of these areas. 1. How and why do the beaches vary at Barmston, Mappleton and Hornsea? 2. How do the sea defences affect the beach? 3. What problems are caused due to management of the beach? Hypothesis the varying beaches are caused by the materials in the cliffs near by, also what type of sea defences are in place will affect the beaches dramatically. Location of the Holderness coast, Barmston, Mappleton and Hornsea Technique Fig no. Data Collected Purpose Methods Limitations Date 1. Bi-Polar analysis 1.1 1.2 1.3 Visual survey of the 3 areas. ...read more.

Middle

Information provided by someone suitable (i.e. a teacher). Then the survey should be conducted taking an average or all the recorded results. The photographs could be taken systematically. Sampling techniques Random sampling still has human bias involved. Systematically sampling could raise issues, such as areas maybe affected by an object (such as a concrete wall). Taking many samples reduces the error to a minimum. Annotated photos - [fig 2.1] [Fig 2.2] [Fig 2.3] [Fig 2.4] [Fig 2.5] [Fig 2.6] Hand-drawn representation of the beach surveys conducted at Barmston, Mappleton and Hornsea Chi Squared As at each of the 3 locations there is a difference in the rate of erosion, I would like to know if this has anything to do with its location. Therefore Barmston, Mappleton and Hornsea are all examined in this Chi squared data exercise. Null hypothesis : There is no relationship between the 3 locations and the rate of cliff lost since 1951 The 'O' values are the number of post in that location, that have eroded the set amount show by the different ranges to the left of the table. Metres of Cliff lost since 1951 Barmston Mappleton Hornsea Total 0-35 O = 3 O = 4 O = 0 7 E = 2.8 E = 2.8 E = 1.4 0.0143 0.5143 1.4 35.01-70 O = 5 O = 2 O = 2 9 E = 3.6 E = 3.6 E = 1.8 0.5444 0.7111 0.0222 70.01+ O = 0 O = 2 O = 2 6 E = 2.4 E = 2.4 E = 1.2 2.4 0.0666 0.5333 Total 8 8 4 20 Chi Squared 6.2 95% Significance 99% Significance Degrees of freedom 4 9.49 13.28 The relationship between the metres of cliff lost since 1951 and the location, has a total chi squared data of 6.2. As it has 4 degrees of freedom, it shows that there is no obvious correlation between the location and the rate of cliff lost since 1951. ...read more.

Conclusion

Barmston. * The different Geology nearby, effects what quantities of materials will be present on the beach. * Sea defences have a dramatic effect on how the beaches vary. How do the sea defences affect the beach? * Hornsea and Mappleton would erode at a much faster rate than at Barmston if no sea defences were in place, this caused by the lack of protection from the 'long fetch' due to Flamborough head not providing shelter as it does at Barmston. * The sea defences slow down the flow of longshore drift, thus making the beach wider and more stable to the North of the defences. * To the South of the defences (the direction of the wave energy), the beaches are normally non-existent due to high amounts of wave energy being available, when sediment isn't being carried in the waves. What problems are caused due to management of the beach? * Other areas of the coast are affected by management of a particular area. * Places without a high amount of economical value, don't have anything worth much to even be considered for beach management, from the councils point of view, thus management of the beach areas do not take place. * Areas which have been managed have a higher bi-polar mark, indicating economical value. * If one place is managed with a large amount of money invested, less money will be available to the rest of the Holderness coastline. In the foreseeable future, at Barmston beach, it looks like the beach will continue to slowly erode away and although the sediment and rocks that are there now will be gone, it will still have the same sort of layout, as the caravan site will continue to fall into the sea. Hornsea's beach will need maintaining in order to sustain its beach and Mappleton's beach won't need much maintenance, but will still need maintaining to keep the same beach. - 1 - ...read more.

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