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'How and why do the characteristics and processes of a river and its valley, vary the channel and downstream'.

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Introduction

Chapter 1 - Introduction During the course of this essay I will be discussing the issue of 'How and why do the characteristics and processes of a river and its valley, vary the channel and downstream'. I will be using the data that I have collected and other sources of information to investigate and evaluate how this natural process occurs. My hypotheses that I had before I collected the data on my trip to the Sai Kung Country Park where... * as the velocity of the river decreases as we move downstream * the size of the load will decrease when we move down stream And * discharge of the river increases as we move downstream I have came up with these hypotheses by researching and back ground nosegay. I also have light understanding on how rivers change though the course from past geography lessons. The area which we have been studying is suited in Hong Kong which is in Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China. Hong Kong's climate consists of tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall. The terrain of Hong Kong is hilly to mountainous with steep slopes there are also lowlands in north. ...read more.

Middle

This form of data collection was performed by using a still frame camera for photography and pencil and paper for the stretching. Normally we focus on a point and either take a picture of it or sketch down what it looked liked Stream velocity of a river Due to the importance of understanding the velocity of the stream this from of data collection is a must. When finding the velocity of the stream it helps us to comprehend how much energy the river has. The bed load will also be identified at this point. The size of the bedload will also be found helping us understand how powerful the traction and saltation is in the river. This will further more help us find out the erosion power of the hydraulic action in the water of the river which then concludes how the river shapes the land. How we found the velocity was by setting up an area which a ping-pong ball travel between and calculating the time it took. The area was produced b 2 ranging poles set 10 meters apart which was set upstream. Actions then taken were the time which the ping pong ball took to travel from one end to the other end. ...read more.

Conclusion

The cross sectional area is taken by measuring the channel width the intervals. The depths are also recorded which start at the edge of the back to the other side. The measurements of the channel width are 1st taken. Then the distance between each interval is measured so that each one is the same. Then 10 different depths are taken. 1 from each interval they are measured in centimeters and meters. The trapezium rule is then used to find the cross sectional area. Channel efficiency Channel efficiency tells us how efficient the river is. Low efficient is caused by high levels of friction which is caused by the rivers banks and beds. Less efficient rivers often cause floods due to the fact that is less efficient in discharging its water, this is important to flood prone areas due to people trying to change the efficiency of the river were they deepen the river. Lessening the wetter perimeter by smoothing the river's bed also will cause this problem. I had found the river channel efficiency by calculating the width to depth ratio and hydraulic radius. Width to depth ratio is done by measuring the bankfull width and depth the dived by each other. Hydraulic radius is done by dividing the wetter perimeter by the hydraulic radius. 'How and why do the characteristics and processes of a river and its valley, vary the channel and downstream' 1 Jason Chiu 11T ...read more.

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