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How and why does Beach Characteristics

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Introduction

Edexcel B Geography AS Coursework How and why does Beach Characteristics Change Periodically? Contents Section Page Section 1 - purpose of investigation 3 Section 2 - methodology of data collection 6 Section 3 & 4 - data presentation, analysis and explanation 8 Section 5 - Evaluation and Conclusion 15 Bibliography 17 Appendix 19 Illustrations Figure Number & Title Page Fig. 1.1: table showing the angle of repose of different sediment sizes 3 Fig. 1.2: a map showing the south east of England 4 Fig. 1.3: a map showing the location of study area 4 Fig. 1.4: a map showing the sediment cell 4 Fig. 1.5: table showing the geology of the cliffs 5 Fig. 2.1: methodology table for beach profile 6 Fig. 2.2: methodology table showing percolation rate 6 Fig. 2.3: methodology table showing sediment size 7 Fig. 3.1: table of summer data 8 Fig. 3.2: table of winter data 8 Fig. 3.3: diagram to show how the angle of repose is reduced. 8 Fig. 3.4: diagram to show how the angle of repose is increased. 9 Fig. 3.5: differences in percolation rates between summer and winter for an unmanaged section of shore; Walton on the Naze 10 Fig. 3.6: differences in beach height for an unmanaged section of shore; Walton on the Naze 11 Fig. 3.7: differences in sediment size between summer and winter for an unmanaged section of shore; Walton on the Naze 12 Fig. 3.6: Scatter graph showing the relation ship between beach height and sediment size in the summer 13 Fig. 3.7: Scatter graph showing the relation ship between beach height and sediment size in the winter 14 Section 1- Purpose of Investigation Aim: To investigate variations in beach characteristics from season to season. Background Information Beaches are accumulations of sand and shingle deposited by waves. The sediments, which form beaches, enter the coastal system from rivers, cliff erosion and wave transport. ...read more.

Middle

Section 3 & 4- Data Presentation, Analysis and Explanation Results The winter data was collected on the 22/02/2006 between 10:30 and 12: 30. The summer data was collected on the 24/06/2005 between 10:30 and 12: 30. The summer data is secondary data. Fig. 3.1: table of summer data Fig. 3.2: table of winter data Winter Site Number 7 8 9 10 11 12 mean Mean Beach Height (m) 4.79 5.50 6.01 4.68 4.88 5.15 5.17 Mean Sediment Size (g) 417 1090 1033 1238 188 925 815 Mean Percolation Rate (mm/min) 31 25 76 59 60 105 59 Summer Site Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 mean Mean Beach Height (m) 3.91 3.01 2.52 2.28 2.37 2.08 2.35 Mean Sediment Size (g) 548 370 378 473 381 290 406 Mean Percolation Rate (mm/min) 55 41 38 67 52 49 50 o Beach profile has a steeper gradient in the winter than in the summer. This statement is true as shown in the results table above, and illustrated in the line graph (figure 3.6). The winter beach has a steady incline, whilst the summer beach has a build up of sediment towards the back of the beach. Larger sediment built up in the winter support a larger angle of repose and so the beach will be steeper as stated by Clowes and Comfort's angle of repose theory. This will only occur in the winter. In the summer wave energy is increases and the berm is saturated with water, this lubrication by water encourages the down slope movement of beach sediment. Water pressure in the pores makes the sediment buoyant reducing the angle of repose Fig. 3.3: diagram to show how the angle of repose is reduced. o The sediment material is larger in the winter than in the summer. This statement is true when analysing the bar graph (figure 3.7). In all cases the sediment size is larger in the winter than there is in the summer. Generally there is more sediment towards the berm. ...read more.

Conclusion

There may be slight mistakes in the data collected as it is subjective, and the anomalies may be a result of human error. When collecting data for beach height, the spirit level was a little over 1 metre; so the change in gradient was not taken at every metre; but a little more than a metre each time. When collecting the data for percolation rate it was difficult making sure no leaks occurred as the smaller sediment cracked as it was banked up around the piping, causing leakages. Larger material could not make a seal as efficiently around the piping so leaks occurred more readily. Water already started to infiltrate the material before the piping was full in some cases when larger material as involved so the results became slightly inaccurate. When collecting the data for sediment analysis often there were lumps of clay in the sample which needed to be discarded but sometimes was not. In some areas it was difficult to dig to the correct depth as the sediment was too hard to dig through as it was made of solid material. Therefore sediment was collected from around the sampling area. The mass of the sediment was only collected the different shapes and sizes were not recorded; this however could be done in future studies. The study could be developed further measuring the waves, so that their wave type could be identified. This will give explanation to the behaviour of the beach, as the energy the waves carry could be identified from this. This could not be done on this occasion, as it was a safety risk. To measure the waves' length and amplitude the person measuring the wave needs to be in the sea. Books * Environment and People by Michael Witherick * A New Introduction to Geography by David Gardner, Greg Hart and Nic Howes * Landmark AS Geography by Robert Prosser, Michael Raw and Victoria Bishop * Discover Physical Geography by Keith Grimwade Websites * www.s-cool.co.uk * www.geographyfieldwork.com * www.tendringdc.gov.uk * www.anglicampus.com * www.geocities.com Word Count 2163 words ...read more.

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