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How are coasts eroded?

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Introduction

Coasts How are coasts eroded? (Erosion is where the materials are removed) Waves are the agents of costal erosion, weathering also occurs on coastlines. Wind, Rain, Chemical, Biological weathering also affects the coast. What cause's waves? Wind cause's waves, a wave is a ripple on the surface of a water body created by wind passing over it. A wave breaks because the water at the bottom of the wave is slowed down by friction in the shallower water of the beach/coast which cause the top of the wave to go faster than the bottom which cause's the arch shape which then topples over. The water does not move in a wave, it's the energy that's passing though the water like a surge (The water molecules go round in circles). What Affects The Force of A Wave? * The strength of the wind. * The depth of the sea. * The 'Fetch' of the wave. All affect the force of a wave. The Fetch is the length of water over which the wave has passed. The Fetch is longer on the west coast of the United Kingdom because the prevailing wind and water has travelled all the way across the Atlantic Ocean. The North Sea is smaller than the Atlantic so the east coast doesn't get as big waves. One would expect the erosion to be greater on the west coast because of the long fetch but its not because the rocks in the east are far weaker than the rocks in the west, therefore erosion is greater in the east. ...read more.

Middle

A) Hydraulic Power: This is the sheer weight and impact of the water against the coastline. It is greatest under storm conditions when hundreds of tonnes of water may hit the rock face. Also air trapped in cracks and caves is suddenly compressed by breaking waves, which increases the pressure on the rock. B) Corrasion: Another name for this is abrasion. The breaking waves throw sand and pebbles against the rock face. These break off pieces of rock and cause undercutting. In large storms boulders will also be flung against the cliff face causing even greater damage. C) Attrition: Particles carried by the waves are by the waves are reduced in size as they collide with the rock face and one another. Boulders and pebbles are broken down into sand sized particles, which are easier for the waves to carry away. D) Corrosion: This is the chemical action on rocks by seawater and is most effective on limestone rocks, which are carried away in solution. Coast Transportation 1) Traction - Movements of large stones, pebbles rocks (rolling motion). 2) Saltation - Stones, pebbles are 'bounced' along (insufficient energy to 'carry' the particles in). 3) Supension - Sufficient energy to carry sand particles and maybe pebbles for a short period. 4) Solution - Material is dissolved. Long Shore Drift 1-5 Movement of pebbles along the beach. ...read more.

Conclusion

Easington provides the road to spurn head, which would be cut off by road if the land were eroded at Easington, Easington is also the end of a main road. 5) A) The area at greatest risk from coastal flooding in Britain would be low areas along the coast, especially the East coast. This is because the land is much, much flatter, with hardly any hills. B) There would have to be millions of pounds worth of investment to stop regular flooding if sea level rise occurs. The price of housing would drop and people would move in land where there isn't much fear of flooding. 6) A) The Dutch have built lots of big and little dams and installed sand dunes in an effort to protect their coast. The Great Dyke is a brilliant example of this. It was built to stop waves; it is over 20km's long. B) The management of the coast is vital here because all Holland's major cities, industry and best farmland are all by the coast. This would make flooding and erosion in Holland very serious matter. C) A polder is a piece of land created to help stop the current and slow the erosion process. D)The national policy is better for coastal management in Holland than Britain. This is because Holland is a small country where no one is far away from the coast. It is low-lying which makes it very easy to flood. All the good farmland, major cities and industry is near the coast, so much more money is spent protecting them than in Britain. ...read more.

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