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How crude oil is formed.

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Crude Oil Introduction Crude oil is a form of non-renewable resource. It is important in daily lives and this paper will be concentrating on how it is located and extracted from the ground. I will start off with explaining what oil is and how it is formed. How oil is formed Oil was formed over millions of years from the remains of dead sea creatures. Once the remains settle down on the seabed, layers of mud and rock covers them. This causes a condition where there is no oxygen for bacteria to grow, therefore meaning that the remains cannot decay. Over the millions of years, the remains, under increasing pressure and temperature from the layers of sediments gradually turn to crude oil. As oil is not very dense, the crude oil can rise through rocks, which are permeable, meaning that liquids can pass through. Unless there is an impermeable (liquids cannot pass through) cap rock, the oil will seep up to the surface. ...read more.


The rocks with oils in them should sound different to those without. They also sample the rocks, to observe the fossils in them, as there are some fossils, which aid in the process of oil production. We can also use seismic waves, which is mainly a method to sketch out the structure of the reservoir of oil. Geologists and geophysicists work together and places explosives several feet below the ground. When they are set off, sound waves either go straight up to the geophones, which pick up the waves, or they go further down and bounce off a different rock boundary, reflecting them back to the geophones. The geologists and geophysicists study the time differences in the reflected waves and create a formation for the anticline. If looking under water, they use an air gun to replace the explosives and hydrophones, which substitutes the geophones. Extracting the oil Extracting the oil is done by drilling and is an expensive job to do. ...read more.


You will find many oilrigs based upon the sea. This is a picture of an offshore large oilrig. What happens after Once the oil is drained from the reservoir (which varies on each occasion), the crude oil that is made up of a mixture of substances, mainly hydrogen and carbon though, is then sent off to an oil refinery. The oil refinery fractionates the oil (divides it up according to molecular weight), which is heated in a distillation column and condensed at different temperatures to make different end products. The picture below illustrates the way oil is fractionated and the ending products due to different condensing temperatures. The oil at the bottom has a higher boiling point, and is the ones with the heavier molecules. It is thick and hard to catch light. The oil at the top is gas which is thin, flammable and with light molecules. Conclusion After completing this report, I have found out a lot of information about oil. I understand the processes of locating and extracting crude oil and know how crude oil is changed into everyday items. Lena Tran 11A Page 1 of 4 ...read more.

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