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How does Loughton Brook change as it moves downstream?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

HOW DOES LOUGHTON BROOK CHANGE AS WE MOVE DOWNSTREAM? By Shrikrishna Selvaratnarajah Candidate No.: Centre No.: Ilford County High School Word Count: 4,500 How does Loughton Brook change as it moves downstream? Focus of enquiry (Introduction and Aims) AIMS 1. To investigate the change in river characteristics such as: * Depth of the River * Pebble size * Width of the River * Velocity of the river * Gradient of the River * Bank full and Low flow measurements as we move downstream. 2. To identify characteristics of the river and its valley such as gradient, valley shape, leaf litter and forestation My key questions are: 1. How does efficiency change with distance downstream? 2. How does sediment change with distance downstream? The key questions are relevant to the aim because the pebble size is used to answer the sediment change and the other aspects that I am investigating are towards efficiency change. LOCATION 1. NW to NNW of Ilford County High School. In the suburbs of Southeast England 2. It is near the confluence of River Roding 3. The catchment is long, thin and approximately 11km long 4. Its 100m metres above sea level at the source and 10m above sea level at the confluence 5. It is surrounded by Epping Forest (Aforestation) 6. Non coniferous trees at source 7. It has a stream order of 4 8. Loughton is the closest settlement South East of the Epping Forest Field Centre 9. The Drainage basin is rectangular and surrounds Loughton Brook. Its mainly high land so there will be a lot of surface run off. 10. The soil is much more dense upstream than downstream, which enable surface runoff to take place upstream and form the source of the river 11. As it is situated in a hilly area there is a high chance of there being a lot of relief rain. ...read more.

Middle

The velocity was slower than it should in some sites, as our experiment was not very effective. Much leaf litter obstructed the cork and slowed it down. As we had lost our equipment basket, we were rushing to finish and take our result and the rush could have caused us to get some anomalous results. Even though I encountered these problems I still believe that it is good enough to answer my key questions. SECONDARY DATA There were many pieces of secondary data that I obtain: � OS map of the area (sheet) � Information from the web site � Coursework Preparation (sheet) � Sampling Techniques (sheet) � Map of Loughton (sheet) � Geology of Loughton (sheet) � Infiltration Rates for different Geological types in Epping Forest (sheet) � Map of sites (sheet) � Location of Epping Forest (sheet) � Pebble Analysis (recording sheet) � River channel recording (sheet) The reason why I was presented with the OS map of the area was so that I could clearly show the location of Loughton Brook. The guide at the Epping Forest Centre gave it to me. I then got background information from the website so that I wouldn't miss any key fact. I did this by myself in my own time. Map of Loughton (sheet) - this was the most appropriate sheet to show the exact area of Loughton Geology of Loughton (sheet) - will shows us the different types of soil and it can be . used to see any pattern to compare Infiltration Rates for different Geological types in Epping Forest (sheet) - to see whether any odd results occur at different geological areas Map of sites (sheet) - This will be used to show the different sites that I visited. Location of Epping forest (sheet) - this will be part of location as it shows where Epping Forest is in Redbridge. Pebble Analysis (recording sheet) ...read more.

Conclusion

To improve this investigation it would be better if next time all the apparatus was checked before we went out. While testing for velocity the stretch of river tested was cleared of leaf litter. APPENDIX BANKFULL Site No. Depth 0 Depth 1 Depth 2 Depth 3 Depth 4 Depth 5 Depth 6 1 0 -0.39 -0.43 -0.44 -0.41 -0.4 0 2 0 -0.05 -0.028 -0.027 -0.031 -0.033 0 3 0 -0.36 -0.34 -0.44 -0.41 -0.43 0 4 0 -0.08 -0.16 -0.24 -0.41 -0.5 0 5 0 -0.21 -0.23 -0.3 -0.55 -0.64 0 This table is for the 5 bankfull measurements taken by my group at each site we visited. LOWFLOW Site No. Depth 0 Depth 1 Depth 2 Depth 3 Depth 4 Depth 5 Depth 6 1 0 -0.06 -0.065 -0.07 -0.06 -0.05 0 2 0 -0.075 -0.07 -0.085 -0.09 -0.09 0 3 0 -0.14 -0.15 -0.22 -0.18 -0.2 0 4 0 -0.06 -0.1 -0.15 -0.16 -0.16 0 5 0 -0.07 -0.13 -0.22 -0.31 -0.38 0 This is for the 5 low flow measurements taken by my group at each site we visited. Dis From S Velocity 150 0.05 540 0.12 640 0.03 770 0.07 800 0.04 810 0.11 910 0.1 1060 0.11 1100 0.11 1200 0.53 1360 0.25 This is a table for the graph for Distance from source by velocity. Channel Roughness Velocity 0.72 0.05 0.16 0.12 1.1 0.03 0.63 0.07 0.75 0.04 0.65 0.11 0.87 0.1 0.4 0.11 0.4 0.11 0.49 0.53 0.1 0.25 This is a table for the graph for channel roughness by velocity. Dis From S Gradient 150 0.03 540 0.01 640 0.012 770 0.019 800 0.023 810 0.03 910 0.022 1060 0.02 1100 0 1200 0.022 1360 0.022 This is a table for the graph for Distance from source by Gradient Dis From S Discharge 150 0.01 540 0.02 640 0.01 770 0.01 800 0.005 810 0.04 910 0.07 1060 0.01 1100 0.01 1200 0.28 1360 0.09 This is a table for the graph for Distance from source by Discharge Shrikrishna Selvaratnarajah 10P Geography Coursework Mrs Rae Page : ...read more.

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