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'How does the risk of flooding vary along the course of the River Eea?'

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Introduction

The River Eea, Cartmel Peninsular, Cumbria, Northwest England 'How does the risk of flooding vary along the course of the River Eea?' In order to understand what can contribute to a river flooding or what can be done about it I used the River Eea, located south of Lake Windermere in the Lake District, Northwest England (see fig. 1). I used four sites along the course of the River Eea, starting at Ayside Tarn near the source of the river Eea and finishing near the mouth at Cark Farm. At each site I took a number of various readings to help me with my studies, finding out how flooding varies along the course of the River Eea. These readings included data such as the velocity of the river, the width, and the depth at set intervals across the width. I also took readings such as the management strategies in use, the gradient of the river, and the land use along the course of the river. I collected this data because these are the main factors that contribute to flooding. I will give these factors a score on a scale of 1 to 5 at each site so that I can compare the risk of flooding at each of the four locations. 5 will mean that the location is very likely to flood and 1 will mean the site is very unlikely to flood. A total score out of 25 can then be given to each site. The wetted area is the amount of water in the channel so this will get a high score if it is a high number. ...read more.

Middle

Here, at High Cark Bridge, the river had a gradient of 4? and width, depth and velocity as follows: Width (m) Depth (cm) Velocity (flow rate in seconds) 0 0 0.5 21 16 1.0 0* 18 1.5 34 25 2.0 27 Average Velocity 19.6 *Here there was a large rock one metre across the river. It stuck out of the water so here our reading for depth is 0cm. Here is the channel profile for site 2: Factors of Flooding Score (on scale of 1 - 5. 1 being very unlikely to cause flooding) Wetted Area 2/5 Velocity 5/5 Hydraulic Radius 4/5 Discharge 1/5 Flood Prevention Schemes in Place 5/5 Total Score 17/25 Factors of Flooding Score (on scale of 1 - 5. 1 being very unlikely to cause flooding) Wetted Area 3/5 Velocity 4/5 Hydraulic Radius 4/5 Discharge 2/5 Flood Prevention Schemes in Place 2/5 Total Score 15/25 The wetted area for this site is 0.4m2. For this site the wetted perimeter is 1.2m. The hydraulic radius here is 0.333. Discharge at this site is 7.84m3/sec Cartmel Centre is Site three (see fig. 4). Here the River Eea runs through the town of Cartmel. This area is a large settlement; therefore it needs protecting from the risk of flooding. There are lots of houses here along with a range of recreational activities including pubs, shops, playing fields and a horse racing track. The river has been straightened and widened to increase the velocity of the river running through it, as it will then help prevent the flooding of Cartmel. ...read more.

Conclusion

There were a few limitations that I have come across while carrying out my investigation. These included: * The level of accuracy, as the results that I got may not have been very accurate. For example, when measuring the gradient, I used a clinometer. This was to be accurate to 1?, and only if you had a steady hand and something or someone the same height as you to aim it at. * It was also difficult to get an accurate reading on the velocity as the velocity of the river changed throughout the width of it. * The reliability of the scoring system, as it may not of been constant for each site as there was no set value to compare them with and it did not include every factor that could contribute to flooding. * Other factors that could cause flooding, there are other factors such as the geology of the land and the amount of vegetation etc, that I have not collected which could alter my investigation. To try to improve my investigation I could of visited more than four sites. This would then allow me to take more readings. Or if given more time I could visit more than just the one river. I would then be able to see if this pattern was just a one-off, or if it is the same for most rivers. This piece of work only looked at one river system out of hundreds around Great Britain, although they all have similarities between them all, each one will be individual and have different qualities. 8 ...read more.

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