• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Human and physical factors affecting the River Nile's discharge.

Extracts from this document...


Human and physical factors affecting the River Nile's discharge The livelihood and stability of Egypt's population is directly linked to the Nile valley and delta. These two regions account for less than 5% of Egypt's land surface but the agriculture and water sources are largely concentrated in these areas. The water sources are for the Nile are the Blue Nile (originating at Ethiopian highland) and the White Nile draining east central Africa and Sudan). The river flows through Egypt towards the Mediterranean Sea, forming a delta at its southeast coast. Before the 1960's, the discharge from the Nile largely varied throughout the year, although the source from the White Nile remained fairly constant (being based in an equatorial climate). ...read more.


However, during the 1950's the Egyptian government had to face a very high population growth rate. Given its limited resources of arable land in the Nile valley, Egypt was looking for opportunities to expand its agriculture, energy and associated manufacturing production. The easiest alternative was to expand the irrigated areas and to increase the number of crops per year. In 1960, constructions for an additional dam; the high dam at Aswan began.. The main aims of the dam were: to control the river's discharge, to store water from each annual flood achieving regulated releases of water for irrigation, and to generate hydroelectric power. ...read more.


However, the dam was not all good news and caused some detrimental effects: The dam had a role as a sediment trap - as a result the sediment load was filling the reservoir instead of reaching the land which required it for good fertility. In addition, because of the increase in dissolved solids in the Nile water, more salts reached the soils and ground water. The stronger affinity of the salty water to the sediments decreased future agricultural land and water resources and also increasing coastal erosion of the delta. Overall, the dam has been a success in terms of regulating the flow of the river to produce a more evenly spread discharge and to reduce flooding risks, but has not however helped the agricultural economy in terms of producing more crops for the growing population. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology essays

  1. Three Gorges Dam

    the head of the lake due to the increasing amounts of silt that are being deposited. There is also a high possibility that during the construction of the dam, wildlife that lives in that habitat may be threatened with extinction, creatures such as the Siberian crane and the White flag dolphin.

  2. Geograpgy glendun river

    Gradient Again we set out a distance of 10m in a section of the river. We put a pole at either end of the 10m and used clinometers to measure the gradient of the river; we repeated this method at all 5 sites.

  1. To assess whether the modified channel of the river ash is effective in reducing ...

    ranging pole was right up against the river bank and at a 90? angle to the measuring tape. Bank to water We measured the distance from the bank to the river water in both the natural and modified channel to find out if the bank is sloped or straight and smooth.

  2. The Three Gorges Dam.

    Jiangsu in December 11451 cotton coats and pants, 5776 comforters, 858 825 kilograms of rice and ermegency cash were distributed to Xi county Hena Province. 23 988 coats and pants, 16 425 comforters , 374 100 kilograms of rice were distributed in eight towns in Gushi county also in Henan Province; relief helped more than 40 000 people.

  1. Investigating the river Caerfanell

    laid tape measure along the river bank - Take the beginning tape measure and nail it down with the metal pin at 5m where the water has started to touch the riverbank side. - Someone with the other end of the tape measure walk across the river to the other side.

  2. The characteristics affecting the flow of a river.

    They have had little time in the river and therefore they have had less time to be effected by traction, corrosion and erosion. The stones nearer the mouth have been in the river for a very long period of time and therefore they have been worn down a great deal

  1. To dam or not to dam - the Yangtze.

    The silt-free river downstream of the dam will cause rapid erosion of the river's banks and may thus cause huge landslides. Flooding of the valley behind the dam will displace 1.2 million people. 13 cities, 140 towns and 4000 villages will disappear beneath the reservoir and will have to be rebuilt on higher ground.

  2. Geography investigation - The River Skirfare located in the Littondale region in the Yorkshire ...

    This has been mentioned before in scant detail, but will certainly prove to be very important, not only due to the frequency of the links but of the significance in understanding the river processes that are occurring in the River Skirfare. The links will be seen between the three hypotheses.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work