AS and A Level: Global Interdependence & Economic Transition

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What do I need to know to get a top mark?

  1. 1 In order to understand this topic it pays to learn which countries are MEDCs (More Economically Developed Countries), LEDCs (Less Economically Developed Countries) or are somewhere in between (NICs - Newly Industrialised Countries)
  2. 2 To understand the current global economic situation it is worth learning more about the past. Study the history of global economic development, including colonialism and slavery, in order to understand the present.
  3. 3 Whatever your point of view, it is important to recognise that there are positive and negative aspects to globalisation.
  4. 4 Although this is largely an economic topic, it is important to understand the social, political, environmental and cultural aspects of globalisation too.
  5. 5 Learn the definitions for key indicators such as GDP, GNP, GNI, HDI, PQLI.

Common student errors that you should ensure you avoid

  1. 1 Some students seem to think that GDP per capita is the income that each person in a country actually has. It is just the total value of the goods and services produced by a country in a given period divided by the number of people in the country.
  2. 2 Don’t forget that even the richest countries contain some very poor people and the poorest countries contain some very rich people.
  3. 3 Just because China produces many industrial goods, does not mean that it is a More Economically Developed Country. It is better to call it a Newly Industrialised Country.
  4. 4 Some students continue to use the term “Third World” to describe less economically developed countries. This is now out of date and is probably best avoided.
  5. 5 The wealth of a country is not necessarily based on quantity of natural resources which it has. It is much more complicated than that!

Key global interdependence and economic transition facts

  1. 1 The USA is the world’s largest single-country economy, followed by China. If the European Union is taken as a single entity, it has a larger economy than the USA.
  2. 2 Economic growth in China has averaged more than 10% per year over the past 30 years.
  3. 3 The global economy was by the UNDP estimated to have value of over US$ 60 trillion in 2010.
  4. 4 The UNDP also estimated that there were over 10 million US$ millionaires in 2010, while more than 3 billion people earned less than US$ 2 per day.
  5. 5 The BRIC countries are Brazil, Russia, India, and China. They are major NICs which are thought to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development, without yet being classed as MEDCs.

  • Marked by Teachers essays 7
  • Peer Reviewed essays 2
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  5. 14
  1. Marked by a teacher

    Referring to both pharmaceutical and tobacco companies, explain how transnational corporations can influence the health of people in countries at different stages of development.

    5 star(s)

    In LEDCs, medicines can be very expensive and in some countries in the world, in sub-Saharan Africa for example, people's incomes may be so minuscule that they may not even be able to afford food let alone medicine. Pharmaceutical companies make two types of drug: branded and generic. Branded drugs are three to thirty times more expensive than generic drugs and so in LEDCs they are out of the majority's reach, but they are patented and their chemical composition cannot be copied for twenty years; this means that should another company wish to reproduce the specific drug so it can be made available at a cheaper price for the market in LEDCs, it is not possible due to the patent.

    • Length: 2086 words
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating Travel & Tourism

    5 star(s)

    Accommodation & Catering 37 2. Tour Operators 37 3. Travel Agencies 38 4. Transport 38 5. Visitor Attractions 38 6. Tourist Development and Promotion 39 C3 - AN EVALUATION OF THE KEY FEATURES OF COMMERCIAL AND NON COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS TO ILLUSTRATE DIFFERENCES IN THEIR FUNDING AND THEIR BUSINESS OBJECTIVES 40 E5 HOLIDAY REPRESENTATIVE 43 C4 - I AM GOING TO CRITICALLY EVALUATE WHY MY PERSONAL CIRCUMSTANCES BEST MATCH THE JOB OF RESORT REPRESENTATIVE 45 CURRICULUM VITAE 47 A1 - A THOROUGH UNDERSTANDING OF THE REASONS FOR THE RAPID GROWTH OF THE INDUSTRY AND THE FACTORS THAT WILL AFFECT ITS DEVELOPMENT IN THE FUTURE.

    • Length: 11113 words
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Natural disasters and a lack of resources are the main causes of global poverty. To what extent do you agree with this statement?

    4 star(s)

    By the end of the 19th century, European powers controlled 85% of the world. The most well known Empire being the British Empire, covering nearly a quarter of the Earth's total land surface, including countries such as India, Malaysia and Uganda. Colonialism was so significant by stunting the host countries development. Taxation was imposed on the local people, plantations created and raw materials such as crops and minerals, were sent from the colonies to Europe. A good example of this involves France colonising Senegal. Many senegalese farmers were forced to grow groundnuts and send them back to France.

    • Length: 1583 words
  4. Marked by a teacher

    Cold environments may be developed in a sustainable manner. To what extent do you agree with this statement?

    4 star(s)

    Even though the tourist industry has encouraged many young farmers to diversify out of rural and primary activities, many people still leave. Aside from that, the tourist industry brings with it unwanted pollution and litter and also causes footpath erosion. The tourist industry is also a potential hazard to the mountains and villages because the winter sports activities taking place there may cause avalanches. In the tundra or arctic regions, development has not been sustainable either, also both environmentally and socially.

    • Length: 688 words
  5. Marked by a teacher

    Increase in leisure time for many individuals.

    3 star(s)

    The amount of leisure time available to the majority of people in the UK increased steadily up to the early 1970s, but has levelled of since then. The main reasons why leisure time increased up to the 1970s were increasing amounts of annual holiday entitlement, and a gradual reduction in the weekly working hours for most of full time workers. Since the 1970s other factors have had a greater influence on the availability of time, such as: * Flexible work patterns * The use of manual labour- saving devices in the home.

    • Length: 841 words
  6. Marked by a teacher

    Sustainable Tourism - Kenya is in Africaand is becoming a popular holiday destination with tourists and the number of advantages have increased and also the number of disadvantages.

    3 star(s)

    As a result of this the animals get scared. I recommend that they do a couple of things to ensure the safety of tourists and to keep the trips sustainable. First I think there should be strict rules as to where the drivers may go and when, at certain times some animals will become a lot more agitated and may even attack the safari vans. Drivers should remain on the tracks in doing this they are not scaring the animals or killing the environment so it remains sustainable.

    • Length: 1535 words
  7. Marked by a teacher

    Discuss the Extent to which it is possible to measure developement.

    3 star(s)

    People realised that to look at development, people need to look at factors which affect the quality of life; social indicators such as health, education, and well-being and political factors such as people's personal freedom. It is all good and well to say that development is more that just economy, but when it comes to measuring development it is becoming increasingly difficult. Traditionally, measuring development was easy simply using quantative methods, but with many more factors determining a countries development, it has become very difficult to use quantative methods to actually determine developments, for example, how may one apply a quantative method to aspects of daily life such as freedom of speech?

    • Length: 997 words
  8. Peer reviewed

    The Environmental Impact of Tourism and Recreation is almost always harmful. Discuss

    4 star(s)

    There are three main impact areas. One of these is the depletion of natural resources, such as water. In dryer regions like the Mediterranean, the issue of water scarcity is of particular concern. Because of the hot climate and the tendency of tourists to consume more water when on holiday than they do at home, the amount used can run up to 440 litres a day. This is almost double what the inhabitants of an average Spanish city use. Golf course maintenance can also deplete fresh water resources.

    • Length: 919 words
  9. Peer reviewed

    Examine how and why the Economy of China has changed in the last 30 years

    3 star(s)

    This led Chinese firms to westernize. For example each work unit had a director or manager with a clear responsibility (a change to the old 'revolutionary committees' set up during the cultural revolution). They also started to hollow out work to improve technological infrastructure and acquire modern 'know-how' which can then be transferred into domestic firms. Many businesses calibrate through this success by the use of Joint Ventures, having accepted more efficient management and business strategies of global firms. Good examples of these are United Technologies and Caterpillar that have been a great success.

    • Length: 1544 words
  10. Poverty in Africa, the widespread effects of poverty in Africa have had substantial effects on the society, environment, and economy of Africa.

    According to a 2005 IRIN report about 82% of arable land in South Africa is owned by those of European descent (Poverty in Africa Wikipedia). In some nations laws prevent people from disadvantaged groups to own land at all, although these laws are often ignored and land sales to disadvantaged groups occur, legal title to the land is often not assured, this causes most rural Africans to survive as farm laborers. Most African nations have very poor land registration systems and this causes land theft to be a common occurrence and it also makes it extremely difficult to acquire a mortgage or any type of similar loan as ownership of the property often can not be established.

    • Length: 2886 words
  11. What are the factors that led to contemporary differences in development between countries?

    under a dictatorship since its independence and instead of flourishing under new leadership it withered as Francois Duvalier ran the country with an iron fist while stealing from the country . Haiti like most LEDC's in their position had bad relations with the MEDC's leading to lack of investment in the country which is the opposite of South Korea an example of clever governance .South Korea is an example of an NIC that has used its excellent links with MEDC's like the USA to good use by encouraging foreign investment in the country and by using Aid money to invest in state owned companies .

    • Length: 1733 words
  12. Free essay

    Are the Asian tigers a good model for other countries to follow

    These growth rates, sustained over a 30-year. South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore began attracting foreign direct investment which allowed an accumulation of capital that led to a growing period, are simply amazing. While the average resident of a non-Asian country in 1990 was 72% richer than his parents were in 1960, the corresponding figure for the average Korean is than 638%. However even though their growth had been unprecedented and they are definitely doing something right they have been criticised by economists and geographers for their tactics.

    • Length: 684 words
  13. With references to examples, explain why HIV/AIDS is described as a "time bomb"

    Members of the families may move to the cities in search of jobs, but with no money to start with, find themselves in slums in very poor conditions. If they already have AIDS, the dirty water they have to use and open drains could quite easily cause illness, reducing ability to work and possibly killing the victim earlier than necessary. SUB SAHARAN AFRICA Proof of this is evident in Sub-Saharan Africa, where 60% of all worldwide cases of HIV/AIDS are to be found.

    • Length: 1470 words
  14. Free essay

    Transnational corporations. There are two types of TNCs that affect health globally in very different ways. These two types are Tobacco TNCs and Pharmaceutical TNCs.

    Phillip Morris International, R.J. Reynolds and British American Tobacco (BAT), the world's largest non-state owned tobacco producing TNCs own or lease plants in more than 60 countries. The danger of tobacco cultivation becoming increasingly popular in LEDCs is that it will replace food crops; such has happened in Kenya. BAT (British American Tobacco) has targeted the expanding market in India and about 5million children in India, under the age of 15 already smoke and have become addicted. BAT purchase 460,000 tonnes of tobacco leaf a year and over 80% of this is from farmers in LEDCs.

    • Length: 907 words
  15. Measuring development using economic indicators is no longer a real indicator of development. Discuss.

    Economic indicators certainly have a number of strengths in evaluating the development of a country. Ultimately development cannot take place without money to invest in education, improved healthcare and housing and improved sanitation, and if the funds to achieve advancements in these sectors are not available ultimately development is itself inhibited. Ultimately there is a correlation between the economic prosperity of a country and its development in social and environmental factors, and even political. For example Kenya has a GDP of $60.9 billion dollars with a GNP per capita of $1580, making it among the poorest countries in the world.

    • Length: 759 words
  16. Erla Zwingle, the author of Globalization, wanted to manifest her thoughts on what Globalization really means. In her article, Section I indicated that technology is a tool to bring people all over the world closer together.

    In addition, Globalization in term of investment among countries has also increases tremendously as technology advances. This motion is evitable. In section II, Zwingle provided one of the examples such as how the Chinese adopted the American born kids' television show Sesame Street yet transformed the concept so that the show teaches Chinese children the values and cultures that they believe in. In addition, Zwingle applauded that other countries are doing the exact same thing. Zwingle continued to give more examples in Section III. She talked about the globalization through McDonald's. How the multi-billion restaurant chain retained its concept such as fast, cheap food and cleanliness yet adapted localized food of choice to tailor to what the consumers demand.

    • Length: 702 words
  17. Multicultural societies are often the product of migration, but they may also be the stimulus for it Discuss.

    It then can causes issues with education, healthcare etc. Immigrants tend to move into multiple occupancy rented accomodation in innercity areas - they tend to be concentrated in poor housing areas in major cities. They are then able to become a source of cheap labour in construction, transport etc. This connects to the schools in innercity areas becomign dominated by an ethnic group, which can have severe effects on educational requirements. What can appear to be quite simple such as bilingual reading schemes, could mean that entire ciriculums must be changed to accomodate different faiths including term times, timetables and school meals.

    • Length: 1007 words
  18. Technological Leapfrogging. Examine the Importance of Technological Leapfrogging for Developing Countries

    However, with the use of mobile phones 7 million Indian's signed up a month during 2007 and users doubled from 100 million to 200 million in just a year. They allow a major expansion of networks into the untapped rural market, and are encouraged by a bottom-up innovation, where villages are using car batteries to charge their mobile phones.

    • Length: 461 words
  19. How likely does it seem that the Millennium Development Goals will be met by 2015?

    The main issue facing the achievement of this particular MDG is the economic strength of certain countries, and in addition the climate and geographical features of each country need to be taken into consideration. It is clear that some countries will be able to reach their aims by the year 2015, while other will be left behind. Global economic depressions affect many countries, in particular the LEDC's, the 2009 global economic depression cost sub-Saharan Africa's people £12.8 billion, which as a result makes certain MDG's very hard to achieve.

    • Length: 2218 words
  20. Assess the extent to which Trans National Corporations (TNCs) have a positive impact on both developed and developing countries. (15 marks)

    One of the main impacts TNC's have on both developed (MEDC) and developing (LEDC) countries, is the exchange of ideas and knowledge from different countries. TNC's have their headquarters of research and development in their country of origin, and many manufacture their products in developing countries (LEDC's). This has created new possibilities to people in LEDC's. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is basically defined as a company from one country making a physical investment into building a factory in another country.

    • Length: 2094 words
  21. Free essay

    'Gazprom is an instrument of foreign policy arguments for and against. Gazprom not only provides a quarter of Europe's gas supplies, but it has also taken over Russian television stations, newspapers.

    In addition, Gazprom provides its workers with schools, shops, libraries and nurseries to fulfil all of their needs. The climate of the area ranges drastically throughout the year, in the winter the temperatures can drop to minus 50-60C, and in summer the days are hot and the air is filled with mosquitoes. The workers however despite the conditions, are not hard-done-by; the Gazprom employees receive far higher wages than the national average. However with Gazprom's annual earnings (in 2006) at £31.55 billion, this is understandable.

    • Length: 928 words
  22. The use of trade is the most important tool to achieve economic growth in LEDCs. To what extent do you agree with this statement?

    However, there are critics who doubt that that trade is the answer. They believe that less developed countries cannot be competitive in the global market because of the great difference in wealth between them and the developed countries, as they cannot invest in industrial and technological development at the same rate as richer countries. Many poorer countries also depend on agricultural exports which have experienced significant drops in price, as the market has been flooded with similar products from LEDCS across the globe.

    • Length: 1454 words
  23. Evaluate the roles of named players in providing future energy security

    Currently it has been proven that collectively, OPEC has stored 900,000 million barrels of crude oil, they own 78% of global resources and have a combined market share of 45% for oil and 18% for gas. This inherently makes them the largest producer of fossil fuels in the world meaning they will have a large if not absolute say in future energy provision and energy security. The responsibility of oil distribution will then fall on OPEC when supply of oil runs low leading to a bidding system for allocation of oil to where demand and price is highest.

    • Length: 906 words
  24. The Development of the Modern Travel and Tourism Industry

    However, it is not just the air transport that has been revolutionised by technological developments. The channel tunnel was opened in 1995 and increased competition for the cross-channel ferry service. The changing in socio-economic factors has added to the development of the modern travel and tourism industry. These factors include: * Changes in car ownership * Increasing leisure time * An increase in disposable income * The impact of the national economy In the last 50 years, car ownership has increased dramatically.

    • Length: 2296 words
  25. Different types of travel destination. Study of Cardiff and Barcelona as travel destinations.

    In the UK costal resorts have been important tourist destinations since the Victorian times and "Paid Holidays". At first people liked to go to costal areas because of the numerous health benefits associated with bathing in the sea. Most modern coastal resorts can be seen to have existed in Victorian times. In the Victorian era the costal resorts were for "Day-Visitors" as well as holiday makers. Although many sea-side resorts can be traced back to the Victorian times many such as New Quay in Cornwall and Tenby in south Wales have developed over time.

    • Length: 10075 words

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Globalization can only result in technologies that harm the environment" - Discuss

    "Conclusion: Globalization has a dark side. But it can also bring tremendous opportunities and benefits. Technologies can also be beneficial to the environment; this is particularly true of the biotic pesticides and the new technologies of saving land and water. There are vast possibilities in terms of energy and material conservation, new environment-friendly products applications in non-crop agriculture such as newer possibilities of agro-processing and waste recycling. The real issue is not technology or globalization as a technological paradigm. It is institutions and rules that create powerful incentives and preconditions for sustainable development to take place. Equally important is the nature of incentives and deterrents for positive and negative behavior."

  • Tourism in an LEDC Is Likely To Generate As Many Costs as Benefits - Discuss This View With Reference To Areas You Have Studied.

    "In conclusion I feel that less economically developed countries will always have as many costs as benefits when developing though such westernised intensive industries such as tourism. It would be inappropriate to think that the western world would not have a negative effect on the countries and people in question. But it is up to the countries to decide if tourism will work in there favour. If not they can limit tourist input like many Asian countries have for example Korea. As tourist needs change I feel a more positive view on tourism will be taken and more will be done by both tourists and the local people to preserve cultures and environments. This will be aided by the new social need for ecotourism which will aid this steady recovery. The only threats I can see for tourism in less economically developed countries that will be a problem in the futer are low cost flights that are set t entice tourists back to old honey pots such as America and southern Europe. Though my personal view is that with social adaptation and the quest to improve cultural respect from the western world, we will see a great increase in measurements and management used to protect and aid recovery of less economically developed countries and there tourist economy. 1"

  • Explain How Economists Measure Living Standards In an Economy and Discuss The Possible Uses Which Could Be Made Of This Information

    "In conclusion, it is clear that these methods can only be used as a guide to showing the extent of deprivation and living standards. Real GDP per capita is a crude measure that does not take into account distribution and also factors such as literacy, life expectancy and quality of life. Other problems with the methods include that many aspects if living standards are left out and collection of data can be inaccurate. However despite these problems they can still be of immense use. They help in comparing between countries the living standards. This is important because it not only helps a country identify its own problems for which it can improve but shows the international community as a whole the problems and inequality faced by the developing world. This is important because it allows aid to be focussed to countries and areas if greatest needs. Overall it is clear that the best approach would be to take into account all the measures involved in calculating deprivation and possibly incorporate them to provide a more accurate and detailed analysis."

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