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AS and A Level: Global Interdependence & Economic Transition

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What do I need to know to get a top mark?

  1. 1 In order to understand this topic it pays to learn which countries are MEDCs (More Economically Developed Countries), LEDCs (Less Economically Developed Countries) or are somewhere in between (NICs - Newly Industrialised Countries)
  2. 2 To understand the current global economic situation it is worth learning more about the past. Study the history of global economic development, including colonialism and slavery, in order to understand the present.
  3. 3 Whatever your point of view, it is important to recognise that there are positive and negative aspects to globalisation.
  4. 4 Although this is largely an economic topic, it is important to understand the social, political, environmental and cultural aspects of globalisation too.
  5. 5 Learn the definitions for key indicators such as GDP, GNP, GNI, HDI, PQLI.

Common student errors that you should ensure you avoid

  1. 1 Some students seem to think that GDP per capita is the income that each person in a country actually has. It is just the total value of the goods and services produced by a country in a given period divided by the number of people in the country.
  2. 2 Don’t forget that even the richest countries contain some very poor people and the poorest countries contain some very rich people.
  3. 3 Just because China produces many industrial goods, does not mean that it is a More Economically Developed Country. It is better to call it a Newly Industrialised Country.
  4. 4 Some students continue to use the term “Third World” to describe less economically developed countries. This is now out of date and is probably best avoided.
  5. 5 The wealth of a country is not necessarily based on quantity of natural resources which it has. It is much more complicated than that!

Key global interdependence and economic transition facts

  1. 1 The USA is the world’s largest single-country economy, followed by China. If the European Union is taken as a single entity, it has a larger economy than the USA.
  2. 2 Economic growth in China has averaged more than 10% per year over the past 30 years.
  3. 3 The global economy was by the UNDP estimated to have value of over US$ 60 trillion in 2010.
  4. 4 The UNDP also estimated that there were over 10 million US$ millionaires in 2010, while more than 3 billion people earned less than US$ 2 per day.
  5. 5 The BRIC countries are Brazil, Russia, India, and China. They are major NICs which are thought to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development, without yet being classed as MEDCs.

  • Marked by Teachers essays 7
  • Peer Reviewed essays 2
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Cold environments may be developed in a sustainable manner. To what extent do you agree with this statement?

    4 star(s)

    Even though the tourist industry has encouraged many young farmers to diversify out of rural and primary activities, many people still leave. Aside from that, the tourist industry brings with it unwanted pollution and litter and also causes footpath erosion. The tourist industry is also a potential hazard to the mountains and villages because the winter sports activities taking place there may cause avalanches. In the tundra or arctic regions, development has not been sustainable either, also both environmentally and socially.

    • Word count: 688
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Increase in leisure time for many individuals.

    3 star(s)

    The amount of leisure time available to the majority of people in the UK increased steadily up to the early 1970s, but has levelled of since then. The main reasons why leisure time increased up to the 1970s were increasing amounts of annual holiday entitlement, and a gradual reduction in the weekly working hours for most of full time workers. Since the 1970s other factors have had a greater influence on the availability of time, such as: * Flexible work patterns * The use of manual labour- saving devices in the home.

    • Word count: 841
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Discuss the Extent to which it is possible to measure developement.

    3 star(s)

    People realised that to look at development, people need to look at factors which affect the quality of life; social indicators such as health, education, and well-being and political factors such as people's personal freedom. It is all good and well to say that development is more that just economy, but when it comes to measuring development it is becoming increasingly difficult. Traditionally, measuring development was easy simply using quantative methods, but with many more factors determining a countries development, it has become very difficult to use quantative methods to actually determine developments, for example, how may one apply a quantative method to aspects of daily life such as freedom of speech?

    • Word count: 997
  4. Peer reviewed

    The Environmental Impact of Tourism and Recreation is almost always harmful. Discuss

    4 star(s)

    There are three main impact areas. One of these is the depletion of natural resources, such as water. In dryer regions like the Mediterranean, the issue of water scarcity is of particular concern. Because of the hot climate and the tendency of tourists to consume more water when on holiday than they do at home, the amount used can run up to 440 litres a day. This is almost double what the inhabitants of an average Spanish city use. Golf course maintenance can also deplete fresh water resources.

    • Word count: 919
  5. Technological Leapfrogging. Examine the Importance of Technological Leapfrogging for Developing Countries

    However, with the use of mobile phones 7 million Indian's signed up a month during 2007 and users doubled from 100 million to 200 million in just a year. They allow a major expansion of networks into the untapped rural market, and are encouraged by a bottom-up innovation, where villages are using car batteries to charge their mobile phones.

    • Word count: 461
  6. Free essay

    'Gazprom is an instrument of foreign policy arguments for and against. Gazprom not only provides a quarter of Europe's gas supplies, but it has also taken over Russian television stations, newspapers.

    In addition, Gazprom provides its workers with schools, shops, libraries and nurseries to fulfil all of their needs. The climate of the area ranges drastically throughout the year, in the winter the temperatures can drop to minus 50-60C, and in summer the days are hot and the air is filled with mosquitoes. The workers however despite the conditions, are not hard-done-by; the Gazprom employees receive far higher wages than the national average. However with Gazprom's annual earnings (in 2006) at �31.55 billion, this is understandable.

    • Word count: 928
  7. Evaluate the roles of named players in providing future energy security

    Currently it has been proven that collectively, OPEC has stored 900,000 million barrels of crude oil, they own 78% of global resources and have a combined market share of 45% for oil and 18% for gas. This inherently makes them the largest producer of fossil fuels in the world meaning they will have a large if not absolute say in future energy provision and energy security. The responsibility of oil distribution will then fall on OPEC when supply of oil runs low leading to a bidding system for allocation of oil to where demand and price is highest.

    • Word count: 906
  8. Revision notes on superpowers and the shifting balance of power.

    Global Influence Wealth --> Allows superpowers to export their power around the world buy resources and influence trade patterns. Cultural power --> it's about exerting influence through the media to spread culture. Geographical power --> the sphere of influence a superpower has on other countries. (For example: Britain has given other countries our language. Military power --> Today military power means access to nuclear weapons, a countries military weapons reflects the power they have. The Colonial Rule:The British Empire was former British controlled territory. (Group of colonies brought under British rule) Presidential Palace - Delhi The navy provided a link between home country & overseas colonies.

    • Word count: 627
  9. Free essay

    Assess the extent to which the conflict resolution strategies in Afghanistan have been successful.

    However, it has been argued 'the withdrawal would only comfort the Taliban and even encourage them to step up violence' and the Taliban will gain power again. The NATO troops are also training the Afghan Army and Police therefore trying to 'Afghanistize' the country. The troops also participate in Public Patrols and where they protect the public with the help of the police force. The Police force and NATO troops have set up check points in every major city to prevent the Taliban being able to enter cites and cause disruption.

    • Word count: 846
  10. Why are some countries in debt? What impact does it have on development?

    They are therefore in debt to the donor country/organisation. 3) Money mismanagement If a country mismanages their use of money (most likely through the government) and spends money unnecessarily while taking out loans to cover the cost, the country can end up in debt. The effect of debt on development When a country is in debt, a majority of the money it generates is used to pay back money to the donor country. This means that there is little money being invested into the social infrastructure of the country, so healthcare and education levels remain the same or get worse

    • Word count: 849
  11. What can be done to reduce poverty in the world ?

    Governments' ministries should develop sensitizing campaigns to the people of the dangers of being overpopulated in low economically developed countries so that the latter do not remorse later for being ignorant. As a result, the Family Planning convention which has currently been already envisaged, so far, in many countries as well as in Mauritius too. The Mauritian Family Planning policy suggests the Mauritian family should be complacent with three or less children. Similarly, in China, the Chinese government has been very strict in the family planning policy in the past years; it has revisited its policy and has juxtaposed the preceding "two child policy" with a "one child policy" in order to bring efficient changes in maintaining a healthy population.

    • Word count: 939
  12. To what extent were the 1920s a time of economic boom in the USA?

    Some of the successful industries in the 1920s, like steel and construction, were old industries which had been modernised. Other industries like the car and the aircraft industry had been in a pioneering stage in the 1900. The most important development was the introduction of electricity which became widely available for the first time. Whilst 16% of homes had electric power in 1916, 63% of homes had it by 1927. Many new products were developed for the American homes. There was a great boom in newly invented labour-saving devices - such as vacuum cleaners, washing machines and toasters. Kitchens were increasing with electric ovens and refrigerators.

    • Word count: 831
  13. Ordesa National Park is situated in the Pyrenees of Huesca, Aragn (Spain), in the centre of North Eastern Spain.

    Be prepared for sudden changes of weather!! At any moment the Ordesa Valley hiker may be surprised by a shower of rain or snow, depending on the time of year. Five vegetation types have been described: submediterranean, collinean, montane, subalpine and the alpine type. A total of two million tourists visit the site each year. Ordesa is a place for people to get close to nature. There is a very wide variety of animals to meet as well as many possibilities to spend energies by climbing, hiking and walking while meeting this park.

    • Word count: 791
  14. 20- using a range of examples examine how tourism has had both positive and negative impacts on local culture.

    Anthropologists use the term to refer to the universal human capacity to classify experiences, and to encode and communicate them symbolically.2 A goal of developing the tourism industry in a community is maximizing selected positive impacts while minimizing potential negative impacts. It is essential to identify the possible impacts. Tourism researchers have identified a large number of impacts. Here is a table outlining the general impacts of tourism on local culture and communities; 3 Positive Impacts Negative Impacts * Contacts with other people and cultures - educational experience * Modernisation of social attitudes * Revitalisation of traditional crafts, art forms

    • Word count: 798
  15. Using case studies from DCs and LDCs, assess the impacts of tropical cyclones in these countries.

    As a result, fatalities are high and effects on economy can be crippling. Bangladesh is a frequent target of tropical cyclones. Its vulnerability to destruction from tropical cyclones lies much on the fact that it is a bowl shaped alluvial plain and much of the country lies only a few feet above sea level. The 1991 Bangladesh Cyclone (category 5) resulted in 138,000 deaths and much destruction. The cyclone resulted in a storm surge of over 20 feet high. The low elevation of much of coastal Bangladesh allowed this surge to reach extremely far inland and hence caused much damage.

    • Word count: 905
  16. Impacts of Tourism on Antarctica.

    On the other hand according to Diggins, the numbers of tourist have increase by more than 600 percentages. She mentions with the data that the total number of tourist visiting Antarctica exceeds the combine number of scientist and the supporting personal which are in Antarctica program. Baurer mentions that tourist ship which arrived to Antarctica is aboard cruise ships, which do not require land base infrastructure; on the contrary there is no information of shipping accidents in Antarctica which is given by (Diggins, T.1994:02). (Horgon, J.1993: 03) visualise the effects of scientist on Antarctica, by describing the present situation of a station in Antarctica.

    • Word count: 831
  17. There are many types of tourism like sustainable or eco tourism. Sustainable tourism is tourism of the future

    The current growth of tourism is unsustainable and changes are going to have to take place. Despite a large number of visitors from Medc's who go to Ledc's tourism is still in concentrated in the richest countries. Eight of the top ten countries for tourist arrivals are in Europe and North America. Tourism is often the biggest income for the most Ledc's however much of the money raised by tourism in Ledc's often finds it way back to Medc's as many tourists buy things or use the services of companies based in Medc's for example coca cola.

    • Word count: 341
  18. The Bahamas aspired to global leadership and recognition as a "Center of Excellence" in the delivery of services. Excellence is not a skill it is an attitude. Explain what you think this means, providing examples.

    If we want a strong continuity of tourism we must provide the services that we have to the tourist with quality, distinction and superiority. For example, seeing as we provide beautiful beaches to our tourists, we cannot leave the beach unclean or polluted. We must keep the beaches clean so that more tourists would want to come back to our country. We also have to keep in mind that even though out country is very unique from other places, we are still in competition with them, if we don't provide exceptional services then our tourists will go to places that do provide exceptional services.

    • Word count: 564
  19. how has cardiff bay been redeveloped

    Successes and failures When the Development Corporation was wound up in March 2000, it had achieved many of its objectives. The whole area was unrecognisable from just ten years before. Much private land was now open to the public, although the walkway across the barrage remains incomplete, to the dismay of some. Private capital had come from many sources: insurance company Atradius, hotelier Rocco Forte, many housebuilders and retailers. New homes and jobs had been created, the National Assembly for Wales was based in the Bay, the barrage had created a world-class environment.

    • Word count: 851
  20. Case Study: An Overpopulated Country - Bangladesh

    Examples of alternative forms of tourism include nature tourism and eco-tourism. The need for alternative tourism can be summed up as follows. Some travellers are getting bored and dissatisfied with traditional mass tourism destinations, and hope to seek out unique, pristine destinations. Also, the growth of global environmental awareness and the conservation movement increases travellers' awareness of problems associated with mass tourism. Increasingly, destination populations and governments are increasingly aware of the dangers arising from the negative impacts of tourism.

    • Word count: 805
  21. GCSE Geographical Investigation

    As families began to develop more and more disposable income in which they could use to buy cars etc. With this came family individuality, this meant that family's who wanted to go out into the countryside didn't have to wait for a long and uncomfortable bus journey to get into places of natural beauty. The questions that I will be answering in my essay are as follows: 1) Is there a need for conservation and stewardship in the Upper Derwent Valley? 2) Is the area managed in order to conserve the environment in the Upper Derwent Valley?

    • Word count: 520
  22. The 19th century saw Weston grow from a tiny village of about 100 inhabitants, to a thriving Victorian seaside resort of nearly 20,000 people.

    On an average August Bank Holiday 15,000 passengers would arrive on the steamers, however Portishead had either a Horse and Cart, or a small train which couldn't hold many people. Another Reason Weston grew was because of health. By the middle of the 18th century, Dr Russell began to think that drinking, and bathing in, sea-water was good for your health and for the inhabitants of Bristol and Bath, Weston was the nearest coastal village within distance.

    • Word count: 581
  23. Should Vietnam Concentrate on Tourism for its Economic Development?

    Tourism, of course, makes a huge amount of money; it could be hundreds of millions every year. For example places like Barcelona have become huge, great cities full of people thanks to the money made from tourism. Tourism also creates lots of new jobs for the people living in the country and some people who will come to work in Vietnam from other countries. The new jobs will trickle right down to the farmers who grow the food for the people who sell food to the hotels. This means it will be very good for agriculture, giving farmers more money to buy more land and grow more crops.

    • Word count: 654
  24. Tourism's Potential to Fly South Africa, Clipped by Greed

    As it stands, South Africa's tourism industry has it all wrong, suffocating its own potential for growth through the greed of a few operators. The pricing regimes of the prime tourism district are obviously meant for the international tourist coming from countries that enjoy a higher currency exchange rate. The logic is to make a killer out of these visitors. In due course, local tourism is highly inhibited and discouraged. It is also very likely that the lower earners from the targeted countries are also denied entry into these high price zones.

    • Word count: 959
  25. Select two recent or current developments in the travel and tourism industry and explain how these developments have affected career opportunities and job roles within the industry

    This could have affect on jobs, as computerisation will lead to less paper work. Computers are also used to access the Internet and customers are seeing the benefits of using this method of booking. Online booking also cuts out paying the travel agent commission; prices are also generally lower on the Internet. A new type of travel agent is appearing on the Internet, which specialises in e-commerce (electronic business) and example of this type of organisation is Expedia. Organisations such as this can be used to book all the principles of a holiday in one place.

    • Word count: 694

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Globalization can only result in technologies that harm the environment" - Discuss

    "Conclusion: Globalization has a dark side. But it can also bring tremendous opportunities and benefits. Technologies can also be beneficial to the environment; this is particularly true of the biotic pesticides and the new technologies of saving land and water. There are vast possibilities in terms of energy and material conservation, new environment-friendly products applications in non-crop agriculture such as newer possibilities of agro-processing and waste recycling. The real issue is not technology or globalization as a technological paradigm. It is institutions and rules that create powerful incentives and preconditions for sustainable development to take place. Equally important is the nature of incentives and deterrents for positive and negative behavior."

  • Tourism in an LEDC Is Likely To Generate As Many Costs as Benefits - Discuss This View With Reference To Areas You Have Studied.

    "In conclusion I feel that less economically developed countries will always have as many costs as benefits when developing though such westernised intensive industries such as tourism. It would be inappropriate to think that the western world would not have a negative effect on the countries and people in question. But it is up to the countries to decide if tourism will work in there favour. If not they can limit tourist input like many Asian countries have for example Korea. As tourist needs change I feel a more positive view on tourism will be taken and more will be done by both tourists and the local people to preserve cultures and environments. This will be aided by the new social need for ecotourism which will aid this steady recovery. The only threats I can see for tourism in less economically developed countries that will be a problem in the futer are low cost flights that are set t entice tourists back to old honey pots such as America and southern Europe. Though my personal view is that with social adaptation and the quest to improve cultural respect from the western world, we will see a great increase in measurements and management used to protect and aid recovery of less economically developed countries and there tourist economy. 1"

  • Explain How Economists Measure Living Standards In an Economy and Discuss The Possible Uses Which Could Be Made Of This Information

    "In conclusion, it is clear that these methods can only be used as a guide to showing the extent of deprivation and living standards. Real GDP per capita is a crude measure that does not take into account distribution and also factors such as literacy, life expectancy and quality of life. Other problems with the methods include that many aspects if living standards are left out and collection of data can be inaccurate. However despite these problems they can still be of immense use. They help in comparing between countries the living standards. This is important because it not only helps a country identify its own problems for which it can improve but shows the international community as a whole the problems and inequality faced by the developing world. This is important because it allows aid to be focussed to countries and areas if greatest needs. Overall it is clear that the best approach would be to take into account all the measures involved in calculating deprivation and possibly incorporate them to provide a more accurate and detailed analysis."

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