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AS and A Level: Global Interdependence & Economic Transition

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What do I need to know to get a top mark?

  1. 1 In order to understand this topic it pays to learn which countries are MEDCs (More Economically Developed Countries), LEDCs (Less Economically Developed Countries) or are somewhere in between (NICs - Newly Industrialised Countries)
  2. 2 To understand the current global economic situation it is worth learning more about the past. Study the history of global economic development, including colonialism and slavery, in order to understand the present.
  3. 3 Whatever your point of view, it is important to recognise that there are positive and negative aspects to globalisation.
  4. 4 Although this is largely an economic topic, it is important to understand the social, political, environmental and cultural aspects of globalisation too.
  5. 5 Learn the definitions for key indicators such as GDP, GNP, GNI, HDI, PQLI.

Common student errors that you should ensure you avoid

  1. 1 Some students seem to think that GDP per capita is the income that each person in a country actually has. It is just the total value of the goods and services produced by a country in a given period divided by the number of people in the country.
  2. 2 Don’t forget that even the richest countries contain some very poor people and the poorest countries contain some very rich people.
  3. 3 Just because China produces many industrial goods, does not mean that it is a More Economically Developed Country. It is better to call it a Newly Industrialised Country.
  4. 4 Some students continue to use the term “Third World” to describe less economically developed countries. This is now out of date and is probably best avoided.
  5. 5 The wealth of a country is not necessarily based on quantity of natural resources which it has. It is much more complicated than that!

Key global interdependence and economic transition facts

  1. 1 The USA is the world’s largest single-country economy, followed by China. If the European Union is taken as a single entity, it has a larger economy than the USA.
  2. 2 Economic growth in China has averaged more than 10% per year over the past 30 years.
  3. 3 The global economy was by the UNDP estimated to have value of over US$ 60 trillion in 2010.
  4. 4 The UNDP also estimated that there were over 10 million US$ millionaires in 2010, while more than 3 billion people earned less than US$ 2 per day.
  5. 5 The BRIC countries are Brazil, Russia, India, and China. They are major NICs which are thought to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development, without yet being classed as MEDCs.

  • Marked by Teachers essays 7
  • Peer Reviewed essays 2
  1. 1
  2. 2
  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating Travel & Tourism

    5 star(s)

    Accommodation & Catering 37 2. Tour Operators 37 3. Travel Agencies 38 4. Transport 38 5. Visitor Attractions 38 6. Tourist Development and Promotion 39 C3 - AN EVALUATION OF THE KEY FEATURES OF COMMERCIAL AND NON COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS TO ILLUSTRATE DIFFERENCES IN THEIR FUNDING AND THEIR BUSINESS OBJECTIVES 40 E5 HOLIDAY REPRESENTATIVE 43 C4 - I AM GOING TO CRITICALLY EVALUATE WHY MY PERSONAL CIRCUMSTANCES BEST MATCH THE JOB OF RESORT REPRESENTATIVE 45 CURRICULUM VITAE 47 A1 - A THOROUGH UNDERSTANDING OF THE REASONS FOR THE RAPID GROWTH OF THE INDUSTRY AND THE FACTORS THAT WILL AFFECT ITS DEVELOPMENT IN THE FUTURE.

    • Word count: 11113
  2. Different types of travel destination. Study of Cardiff and Barcelona as travel destinations.

    In the UK costal resorts have been important tourist destinations since the Victorian times and "Paid Holidays". At first people liked to go to costal areas because of the numerous health benefits associated with bathing in the sea. Most modern coastal resorts can be seen to have existed in Victorian times. In the Victorian era the costal resorts were for "Day-Visitors" as well as holiday makers. Although many sea-side resorts can be traced back to the Victorian times many such as New Quay in Cornwall and Tenby in south Wales have developed over time.

    • Word count: 10075
  3. Mexican Culture

    Traditional Mexican clothing combines native and European elements. The fibers of choice among the Mexicans are cotton, wool, and silk. In the past, Mexican clothing was dyed with natural components found in local plants, but soon newer and better ones were brought to Mexico from Europe. As for Mexican clothing used on celebrations, we can find a different costume for almost every special day of the year. National festivities are celebrated with typical clothes and accessories such as the "Mexican Sombrero Hat." Traditional Mexican clothing can be found in many varieties and distinguished by gender, social status, and ethnic group.

    • Word count: 3549
  4. Travel And Tourism Case Studies

    BMW, MAN (truckmaker) and MTU (aeroengine maker) are also based in Munich as are countless other firms. It's a super modern exhibition centre, both a film and fashion centre and has the highest density of publishing houses of any place in the world except New York. Culture You could lose yourself for days in the Deutsches Museum or in any of a number of the other museums and galleries and there are countless beautiful churches and other buildings to explore.

    • Word count: 3130
  5. Sustainable Tourism in Australia

    "Sustainable tourism development meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future. It is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social, and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, and biological diversity, and life support systems" The quote above about sustainable tourism was taken from World Tourism Organisation (WTO) it is very similar to what the National Geographic Online has to say about sustainable tourism.

    • Word count: 4605
  6. Pros and Cons of Tourism in Windsor

    There are also increasing numbers of peoples working part-time (especially in retail businesses) or in self-employment who are able to enjoy even more leisure time if they choose to. Perhaps the most significant boost to tourism has been the development of low-cost, long-distance air travel. This allows previously distant locations to be reached in ever-shorter times. In 1934, for instance, a flight from London to Bangkok in Thailand took eight days and involved no fewer than sixteen stops in between! By 202 the same flight could be made directly in only ten hours.

    • Word count: 3909
  7. The Tourism industry in Kenya operates within a liberalized economic environment that is characterised by active partnership

    * The Kenya Tourist Board which is charged with promotion and marketing of the destination both locally and internationally. * The Kenya Wildlife Service which is not an integral part of the Ministry of Tourism, is vested with the responsibility of conservation and management of wildlife, and the maintenance of infrastructure, within the National Parks and Game Reserves. (vii) The Ministry co-ordinates Kenya's Tourism Promotion worldwide; and (viii) Co-ordinates bilateral and multilateral relations in tourism with other Governments, Non-governmental Organisations as well as other Donor Agencies. In addition, the Government provides such basic infrastructure for tourism development, as roads, educational programmes and the requisite security.

    • Word count: 3624
  8. What is the impact of Tourism and Recreation on Epping Forest?

    The trip to Epping Forest will help me in my studies significantly, due to the fact that I will be able to witness first hand; whether or not Epping Forest is a place to be known for recreation and tourism; theories related to impacts of tourism and recreation on the forest will also be analysed and evidence produced. Evidence will include a range of statistics ranging from soil compaction to the tallest plant; wildlife and entirely natural plant life may also become a strong factor for inclusion.

    • Word count: 6670
  9. Can developing countries ever catch up with developed countries

    How, then, should the problem of underdevelopment be contextualised and analysed within the discipline of International Relations? This essay will juxtapose two competing types of theory associated respectively with the development and dependency problematics. The mainstream model, associated with liberal- and realist-inspired approaches in I.R. and I.P.E. and with the discourse of mainstream economists and development specialists (not least those employed by the dominant global institutions themselves), suggests that development is a problem of national economic insufficiency. Nation-states are viewed as distinct entities, related to one another through external relations such as trade. The problem of underdevelopment is assumed to arise because underdeveloped countries have not marshalled their economic resources as effectively as have developed ones.

    • Word count: 5364
  10. Environmental Impacts of Tourism

    It is separated from the mainland by the Menai Strait, which is spanned by two picturesque bridges, the Menai Bridge and the Britannia Bridge. Go HRW [on line] Multi Map [on line] Anglesey is the largest island off the Welsh and English coast and its landscape reveals a vast number of archaeological and historical episodes. The Vikings settled on the island and used the name Anglesey in honour of Ongull and before them the Romans referred to the island as Mona, hence the islands Welsh name - Ynys M�n.

    • Word count: 4816
  11. Spain: European Studies

    Considering their top class player such as Raul, Casillas, Salgado, Campos, Guti, Morientes, Victor, Valeron, Tristan and Xavi, Spain haven't got the best World Cup record: World Cup Record: Qualified: 1934, 1950, 1962, 1966,1978 1982, 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998, 2002 Best achievement: 4th, 1950 Biggest Win: 6-1 vs. Bulgaria, 1998 Biggest Lost: 1-6 vs. Brazil, 1950 Spain's best ever finish in the World Cup is 4th in the 1950's when they didn't have Raul, Morientes or Xavi but instead they had Euzebio, which is considered to be Spain's best ever player and the third ever best player in the world.

    • Word count: 8114
  12. What role can Finance play in developing the Nigerian Business Environment? A Case Study of the International Finance Corporation in Nigeria.

    We don't necessarily want to lend tons of money to Nigeria, because Nigeria has lots of resources. We can contribute in terms of providing advice, transferring technology, providing technical know-how in social, environmental and corporate governance issues" Indeed, the nature of IFC operations globally and increasingly in Nigeria were such that contribution was becoming greater in terms of technology, advice, social development, environmental assistance, corporate governance and ethical issues, and global competitiveness concerns. IFC had begun to realize that their market, and indeed their business model had reached a pivotal moment wherein clients had begun to expect more than just project finance deals and long term syndications.

    • Word count: 4218
  13. Overall the investigation I carried out to see if the Greenwich peninsula had been a successful development went very well.

    For each category a range of numbers from one to four was given to indicate the quality of the environment where one=poor and four=excellent. Location Millennium John Harrison Sainsbury's Bugsby way Noise Level 4 4 3 1 Litter 4 4 4 3 Quality of the built environment 3 4 4 4 Quality of the landscape 4 4 3 4 Fig 1.4 The quality of the environment on John Harrison way is excellent as it is given the full mark for quality in every category.

    • Word count: 3653
  14. Leisure & Recreation: An investigation into recent trends

    As mentioned in the previous chapter, the advancements made in transport mean that less time is spent getting to somewhere and more time is spent enjoying that place. There is an increase in the amount of time available to people is because the UK is becoming an ageing population. This means that people are living longer nowadays, which means there are more retired people. This means the leisure industry has to be able to cater for the retired people that want the facilities.

    • Word count: 5474
  15. The UK travel and tourism industry

    * Leisure centres and swimming pools * Youth and community centres * Parks, gardens and allotments * Playing fields and sports pitches * Public halls and conference centres * Tourist information centres * Catering services * Children's play schemes and summer play schemes * Libraries. Most local authority leisure and tourism facilities and services are subsidised by local taxes, including council tax and business rates. Public sector orgainsations sometimes make profits but do not have profitability as their main objective.

    • Word count: 6767
  16. Investigating Travel and Tourism

    Between 1860 and 1940 working class were happy enough with the seaside holiday, or the "bucket and spade" holiday. Camping and owning your own caravan was a craze and at the time fulfilled people's holiday expectations. But in 1950 Billy Butlin created Butlin`s holiday camp. This was a key development in tourism as the camps offered so many new things to all ranges of ages and status's, from single to families. Although it wasn't the greatest invention. In 1960s and 70s package holidays created mass tourism abroad. This became increasingly popular as in the 1970s and 80s people took distant holidays to Greece, Mexico etc.

    • Word count: 26736
  17. The post-war Development of the Travel and Tourism Industry.

    Having a car is also very convenient due to the flexibility. * Unlike public transport, there is no control of route or pace when owning your own car. This gives people the freedom to plan their own journey and go at any pace they would like to. Another reason for the increase of vehicle ownership which relates to public transport is that it is very far reaching. It is not direct and doesn't reach all destinations possible. This is what makes owning a car such as luxury and a necessity in most people's lives.

    • Word count: 5296
  18. Structure of the Travel and Tourism Industry

    Belvoir Castle, Leicestershire, England is the above picture. The ancestral home of the Duke and Duchess of Rutland for one thousand years. Currently the family home of the 11th Duke, Duchess and their young family. * Cathedrals and Abbeys: The principal church of a province or diocese, where the throne of the bishop is placed. For reasons lost to time and tradition, a cathedral always faces west - toward the setting sun. The altar is placed at the east end.

    • Word count: 3985
  19. The purpose of the essay is to critically evaluate how the interpretation of work and leisure on a global scale has affected leisure and tourism trends in Europe.

    Hasegawa (2002) identifies that the Japanese approach human resource management differently from that used by their western counterparts. The Japanese introduced the concept of lifetime employment, its theory involves workers to manufacture production in mass and stay on at the company and grow as it does. Lifetime employment served this cause well since they are known for being the leaders in mass production. When it comes to making the same products in large quantities, no one can do it more efficiently than the Japanese, however this is only achieved from their number of working hours. According to The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2003)

    • Word count: 3573
  20. Current development issues in Brazil

    Several studies were consequently carried out on a local level, focusing on complex and globally important ecosystems such as the Amazon, the Pantanal and the Atlantic Forest These are regions in which the natural environment has been increasingly affected in the last 20 years by the introduction of new productive relations, new technologies, and new patterns of land use and exploitation of natural and mineral resources.4 According to the UN, illegal and destructive logging, mining, industrial agriculture, plantations and road building have all contributed to an area of ancient rainforest the size of France being lost since the 1970s.

    • Word count: 3352
  21. Economic Analysis of the Tourism Industry in Hong Kong

    10 KEY DETERMINANTS THAT AFFECT CHANGES IN DEMAND AND SUPPLY AND THE MAGNITUDE OF ITS ELASTICITY 12 KEY DETERMINANTS OF DEMAND 12 KEY DETERMINANTS OF SUPPLY 14 PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY 16 PRICING STRATEGIES AND INTERACTION BETWEEN FIRMS 17 NATURE OF COSTS AND IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY CHANGES 18 NATURE AND IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT REGULATION OF TRAVEL INDUSTRY 20 FISCAL POLICY 20 GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION AND REGULATION 21 GOVERNMENT SUPPORT 22 CONCLUSION 22 BIBLIOGRAPHY 23 APPENDICES 26 Introduction As a result of the Asian financial crisis in 1997, the tragedy of 911 and the global slowdown, Hong Kong ("HK")

    • Word count: 6509
  22. Tourism in Hong Kong

    [Tourism Commission website: http://www.tourism.gov.hk] Hong Kong in General Hong Kong has a bustling economy highly dependent on international trade. It is one of the world's freest economies, as well as the world's 10th largest trading entity and 11th largest banking center. Natural resources are limited, and food and raw materials must be imported. Hong Kong has extensive trade and investment ties with the People's Republic of China, even before its reunification with China on July 1, 1997. The tertiary industry represented 86.5% of the GDP in 2001.

    • Word count: 3542
  23. This piece of coursework is based on the tourism industry in less economically developed countries (L.E.D.C), using Kenya as an example.

    Better holiday resorts have been opened to attract more people. In L.E.D.C's more resorts and hotels have opened and offer a wider range of activities for tourists for example a place like Kenya can offer safari holidays. Far off places have become more and more popular because there is better climate, longer days, more sunshine and higher temperatures, which would appeal to British holiday goers. "FAR-OFF" PLACES It's not easy to define what "far-off" actually means because there are many different definitions. The dictionary definition of far is: e.g. far away from other things, a long distance away, very distant.

    • Word count: 3754
  24. Development of the leisure and recreation industry

    Increase in leisure time available for many individual. To look at the increase of leisure time one will first need to see how the average person spends their day. Given here are 2 statistics of average persons, the first average person is from 1971 and the second person is from 1996. Division of total Time 1971 Essential Activities Sleep 35 Personal Care, Hygiene, Eating, Home Care 26 Paid Work and Travel to Work 9.8 Free Time 29.2 From this diagram it can be seen that in 1971 the average person spent 29.2% of their time in leisure activities, this directly

    • Word count: 14814
  25. Examine the components of a 24-hour city

    The management of the components of late-night economy with the area's other characteristics is a vital role in sustaining a holistic image of London as a 24-hourcity. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 CONTENT The purpose of this literature review will help provide an academic overview on the concept of a 24-hour city. It will help develop an academic background, and give some light of the theoretical evidence to the study. However, more importantly, it will help with any questions that may arise during the research process of this dissertation.

    • Word count: 3567

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Globalization can only result in technologies that harm the environment" - Discuss

    "Conclusion: Globalization has a dark side. But it can also bring tremendous opportunities and benefits. Technologies can also be beneficial to the environment; this is particularly true of the biotic pesticides and the new technologies of saving land and water. There are vast possibilities in terms of energy and material conservation, new environment-friendly products applications in non-crop agriculture such as newer possibilities of agro-processing and waste recycling. The real issue is not technology or globalization as a technological paradigm. It is institutions and rules that create powerful incentives and preconditions for sustainable development to take place. Equally important is the nature of incentives and deterrents for positive and negative behavior."

  • Tourism in an LEDC Is Likely To Generate As Many Costs as Benefits - Discuss This View With Reference To Areas You Have Studied.

    "In conclusion I feel that less economically developed countries will always have as many costs as benefits when developing though such westernised intensive industries such as tourism. It would be inappropriate to think that the western world would not have a negative effect on the countries and people in question. But it is up to the countries to decide if tourism will work in there favour. If not they can limit tourist input like many Asian countries have for example Korea. As tourist needs change I feel a more positive view on tourism will be taken and more will be done by both tourists and the local people to preserve cultures and environments. This will be aided by the new social need for ecotourism which will aid this steady recovery. The only threats I can see for tourism in less economically developed countries that will be a problem in the futer are low cost flights that are set t entice tourists back to old honey pots such as America and southern Europe. Though my personal view is that with social adaptation and the quest to improve cultural respect from the western world, we will see a great increase in measurements and management used to protect and aid recovery of less economically developed countries and there tourist economy. 1"

  • Explain How Economists Measure Living Standards In an Economy and Discuss The Possible Uses Which Could Be Made Of This Information

    "In conclusion, it is clear that these methods can only be used as a guide to showing the extent of deprivation and living standards. Real GDP per capita is a crude measure that does not take into account distribution and also factors such as literacy, life expectancy and quality of life. Other problems with the methods include that many aspects if living standards are left out and collection of data can be inaccurate. However despite these problems they can still be of immense use. They help in comparing between countries the living standards. This is important because it not only helps a country identify its own problems for which it can improve but shows the international community as a whole the problems and inequality faced by the developing world. This is important because it allows aid to be focussed to countries and areas if greatest needs. Overall it is clear that the best approach would be to take into account all the measures involved in calculating deprivation and possibly incorporate them to provide a more accurate and detailed analysis."

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