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AS and A Level: Global Interdependence & Economic Transition
Meet our team of inspirational teachers
What do I need to know to get a top mark?
- 1 In order to understand this topic it pays to learn which countries are MEDCs (More Economically Developed Countries), LEDCs (Less Economically Developed Countries) or are somewhere in between (NICs - Newly Industrialised Countries)
- 2 To understand the current global economic situation it is worth learning more about the past. Study the history of global economic development, including colonialism and slavery, in order to understand the present.
- 3 Whatever your point of view, it is important to recognise that there are positive and negative aspects to globalisation.
- 4 Although this is largely an economic topic, it is important to understand the social, political, environmental and cultural aspects of globalisation too.
- 5 Learn the definitions for key indicators such as GDP, GNP, GNI, HDI, PQLI.
Common student errors that you should ensure you avoid
- 1 Some students seem to think that GDP per capita is the income that each person in a country actually has. It is just the total value of the goods and services produced by a country in a given period divided by the number of people in the country.
- 2 Don’t forget that even the richest countries contain some very poor people and the poorest countries contain some very rich people.
- 3 Just because China produces many industrial goods, does not mean that it is a More Economically Developed Country. It is better to call it a Newly Industrialised Country.
- 4 Some students continue to use the term “Third World” to describe less economically developed countries. This is now out of date and is probably best avoided.
- 5 The wealth of a country is not necessarily based on quantity of natural resources which it has. It is much more complicated than that!
Key global interdependence and economic transition facts
- 1 The USA is the world’s largest single-country economy, followed by China. If the European Union is taken as a single entity, it has a larger economy than the USA.
- 2 Economic growth in China has averaged more than 10% per year over the past 30 years.
- 3 The global economy was by the UNDP estimated to have value of over US$ 60 trillion in 2010.
- 4 The UNDP also estimated that there were over 10 million US$ millionaires in 2010, while more than 3 billion people earned less than US$ 2 per day.
- 5 The BRIC countries are Brazil, Russia, India, and China. They are major NICs which are thought to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development, without yet being classed as MEDCs.
Impacts of Tourism: Planning and Policy Development - Critically assess the key arguements regarding the outcomes of tourism in less developed societies.
Private and Public Sector All governments have a vital interest in the health of their countries economy. Working along with the public sector governments are choosing to develop and promote their resources in order to attract tourists. For many tourism is seen as a quick and easy solution to combating economic deficiencies (S.Medlik, 1991). This idea that tourism is good for the economy has increased the interest in developing, planning, government regulations and policies on tourism (WTO, 1997). Developers of tourism can fall into three categories, namely the government, non-profit making organisations and private businesses.
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The plurality of the National Park is still under the private ownership and the majority of is farmed. The Peak District National Park is now one of the most visited areas in the World, it has been estimated that 30 million visits the Peak Park each year. The local people who lives either in the towns and cities knows the qualities of the area, but for the people who are from another region or abroad, the magic for the place is undiscovered.
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3. The macro-environment e.g. Political (and legal) forces, Economic forces, Sociocultural forces, and Technological forces. These are known as PEST factors. Political Factors The political arena has a huge influence upon the regulation of businesses, and the spending power of consumers and other businesses. You must consider issues such as: 1. How stable is the political environment? 2. Will government policy influence laws that regulate or tax your business? 3. What is the government's position on marketing ethics?
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For the security and safety of the passenger, medical services and insurance will also be required to make sure the trip is not disrupted to a great extent should illness or theft, for example, be an occurrence on their excursion. Secondly, the employees of the destination's airport or sea port allowing the transition from transport to forwarding destination goes as smoothly as possible. After this the hoteliers, caterers, porters and cleaners at the hotel will be needed to encourage a further visit to the area, as if the stay in the hotel is favourable, many people will be enticed to return on future holidays, therefore generating further revenue for the hotel and local services.
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Explain How Economists Measure Living Standards In an Economy and Discuss The Possible Uses Which Could Be Made Of This Information
To remove the problem of inflation making comparing GDP per capita inaccurate the monetary data is used as the indicator of living standards. This is done using the consumer price index. Countries below GDP $370 per capita are said to be in absolute poverty. This information is useful in that the data produces a quantitative result that can relatively easily be collected and the results can be compared between different countries. However its use as an exact measure of living standards is bought into question.
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Tourism in Mallorca To make Mallorca economically successful it needs to attract tourists who are going to spend money. Mallorca does this by having very attractive and historical architecture, mainly cultural sites, pleasant landscapes, crafts and traditions plus many more. Mallorca is the largest of the four Balearic islands, the other islands include Menorca, Ibiza and Formentera, and there are also a few smaller islands. One of Mallorca's tourist guides says that 'Mallorca has everything to offer those who seek a creative retreat as well as those who wish to tour the sensibility and culture of the places they visit'.
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LEDC's don't reach stage 5 due to the lack of resources and technology that they have compared to their competitors. This can be caused due to the lack of evenly distributed resources, as MEDC's don't want any more competitors then they already have. A lot of LEDC's have the problems of being involved in a war, this can lead to development stopping, as the government starts to push most or all of its money into finishing the war itself. Some countries can even move back 10's of years in development terms after a war has finished.
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Top 20 UK attractions charging admission, 1999 Rank Attraction Visitor Numbers 1 Alton Towers, Staffordshire 2,650,000 2 Madame Tussaud's, London 2,640,000 3 Tower of London 2,422,181 4 Natural History Museum, London 1,739,591 5 Legoland, Windsor 1,620,000 6 Chessington World of Adventures, Surrey 1,550,000 7 Science Museum, London 1,480,000 8 Royal Academy, London 1,390,000 9 Canterbury Cathedral 1,350,000 10 Windsor Castle, Berkshire 1,280,000 11 Westminster Abbey, London 1,268,215 12 Edinburgh Castle 1,219,720 13 Flamingo Land Theme Park, Yorkshire 1,197,000 14 Drayton Manor Park, Staffordshire 1,174,448 15 Windermere Lake Cruises, Cumbria 1,140,207 16 St.Paul's Cathedral, London 1,076,222 17 London Zoo 1,067,917 18
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Culture is "the acquired knowledge that people use to interpret experience and generate social behaviour" (Spradley 1979, in Littrell 1996:107). It contains local "behaviours and artefacts, beliefs and values, and underlying assumptions, i.e. ways of perceiving, thinking and evaluating the world, self and others"4. As far as some countries are concerned, which have a limited supply of particularly attractive or internationally unique natural attractions, culture can be the most significant tourist attractions. Through the development of tourism industry as a whole in a destination, culture becomes a product as an element of the overall tourist supply and can be marketed to tourists through tangible or intangible elements, e.g.
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It is best known for its 'Golden Triangle' of art museums; Prado, Reina Sofia and Thyssen - Bornomisza. The monument of a bear in the centre the city symbolizes Madrid. It is called madrono (strawberry tree). Other attractions include the observation tower called Faro de Moncloa, the environmental park called Fauna Parque Biologico and the Retiro Park called Parque Del Buen Retiro. Events There are many different events happening in Madrid during the course of the year. Here is a list of just some of these: ? Reyes Magos (Epiphany), marked by a procession of the 'the kings' with commercial floats in January in the city centre.
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Using examples, illustrate the role of multinational companies (tnc), airline companies and globalisation on the tourism industry, globally.
Experts knew a slow down was to be expected, both in global aviation and tourism sectors, as large-scale cancellations of air and hotel bookings were reported hours after the crashes. E.g. 'Brookland's Princess Hotel' in New York, which has over a thousand rooms, reported immediate cancellations from Central Asia of 95 per cent, 83 per cent British cancelled their stay, the few left were highly important business men and women doing company jobs. The September 11 terror attacks in the United States and subsequent events have had a profound impact on worldwide air traffic, with destructive consequences on individual airlines,
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This begins by making up the substantial shortage of basic infrastructure (transport, water supply, energy, waste treatment, telecommunications, health and education.) These areas include regions whose per capita GDP does not exceed 75% of the Community average, as well as thinly populated regions of Finland and Sweden and the outermost regions (Canaries etc). Some coastal areas of Sweden are also covered, along with Northern Ireland and the border countries of Ireland, where there is a special programme for peace and reconciliation.
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Investigating and comparing the development of Gambiaand Masai Mara. Showing the impacts of tourism on the physical environment and on the local community in the two locations.
The Gambia Local community The Gambia is a small country on the west coast of Africa. Tourism in this country has grown very fast since the 1965s the numbers were recorded as 660 tourists; in 1975 there has been an definite increase which recorded more than 25,000 and a rapid increase which had 112,986 tourists in 1998/99. The Population in the Gambia is 1,367,124 (approx). The majority of the population is Muslim. The Gambian tourist organisations and the Government, agree that the social and cultural impacts of tourism require some action, because there are many differences in cultural ways of living and dressing.
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This period was one of building on the work that had been done in previous years. Many sites were brought and made into facilities for visitors and for the first time the park now had its own planning section and was able to regulate development. In 1996 following the Edwards report and the 1995 environment Act, the park became and independent authority and now reports directly to the Welsh Assembly Government. (www.snowdonia-npa.gov.uk) 1951 Snowdonia National Park came into existence on the 18th October 1951> the national park covered a total of 837 square miles of land in the countries of Caernarvonshire, Denbighshire, and Merioneth.
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Bestwood Country Park is situated in North Nottinghamshire 4 miles north of the Nottingham City Centre, on the rural-urban fringe.
It is a very popular recreational and educational facility as well as being an area with extreme ecological and landscape quality. It is used by locals, some of whom use it for exercising animals, horse riding, walking and many other leisure activities. The park provides many facilities such as the conservation area, lakes, field study centre and picnic area. Bestwood is a venue of events all year round including kite flying and themed camping weekends. Bestwood Country Park has many aims and purposes.
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Many new jobs will be created, which will be filled by local labour. The jobs will probably be better paid than other jobs supplied by industry which developed within the country. On the other hand, the wages will be much lower than the wages given for the same job in an MEDC. This is another reason why TNCs choose to create branches in LEDCs. The jobs supplied by the TNC will probably require some basic skills, especially if it involves the manufacture of a good. The education will be supplied by the TNC, and will probably be of a fairly high standard if they want the branch to be very productive.
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4. What is meant by the term "Counter Urbanisation"? Counter urbanisation is the term used when people move away from the large cities towards the smaller towns and the countryside. 5. On a map of Hull mark on the "Rurban (Rural-Urban) Fringe". 6. Using the deprivation map of Hull, how would you describe this area? To the south-east of the area the deprived area numbers are the greatest but as you look to the north-west the deprived area numbers fall and the map goes from dark to light meaning deprived to less deprived areas.
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The reason for most people who live in the countryside is the clean and fresh environment. Compare to the cities, countryside's environment seems like heaven. No noisy cars, no dirty factories and have people cramped together all the time.
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Account for the Main Features in the Development of Cromer Before the Coming of the Railway 1500 - 1875.
The trade continued to support the town through to 1798; when the lower class of people were "chiefly supported by fishing". Due to its important fishing industry, Cromer needed such things as a curing house and therefore it developed by extending its fishing facilities. The information about the curing house was found in Bartell's 'Guide about Cromer 1798' which suggests that Bartell considered the fishing industry something that the tourists would find interesting. Indeed, visitors such as Dr. Martin did find it interesting.
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Without Clement Scott, Cromer Would Never had Developed into a Popular Seaside Resort by 1914. - Do you Agree With This Statement?
The image of this place he created in his book and articles in the Daily Telegraph interested artists and writers who arrived in Cromer to visit the "dream-haunted" "garden of sleep". Cromer cashed in on 'Poppyland' fame by producing Poppyland souvenirs such as postcards. Promoters of land around Cromer up for sale, the Cromer Hall Sale Particulars, also used Clement Scott's articles by including quotes to help auction off land around that area; "The scene of Clement Scott's famous 'Poppyland' and 'Garden of Sleep'".
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The Company producing might want to find out if any assistance is given by the government; if it would be more profitable for the Company to produce in an overseas factory or locally; if there were possibilities of the government being overthrown - these are just some of the numerous questions the Company needs answers to, before it introduces its new product. Once the product is introduced the Company has to be sure that all the necessary legal arrangement have been made.
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Increasing weal;th has allowed people in employment who earn high salaries, to use their disposable income that is considerably higher than it was several years ago, on tourism, and visiting foreign countries. People in full time employment also now receive payed holidays, which allows them to take mor than one holiday per year.
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In the past religion has discouraged the education of women and girls. Also parents were reluctant to pay for the education of their daughters as they would only leave home when they married. With half of the countries workforce made up of females, the country can no longer afford to ignore them. Women being less educated than men are also rarely in control of their own lives. Where they have greater independence, social development is often more advanced. Another of these factors is population. In the Dominican Republic population growth is greater than economic growth.
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My great grandfather used to be a farmer but nowadays people in this area are no longer relaying on agriculture. Now people tend to work in the tourist industry and farmland has been give up to build ski slopes and lodges. Older people feel that the area has lost its natural beauty but most of their income comes from the tourist industry. Oak, hornbeam, and pie trees dominate the warm foothill zones, and sheltered valleys opening onto the Upper Italian Lakes abound with subtropical vegetation.
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In India, however, quite a different trend is apparent, as even though it has a population approaching a billion, it has a very poor life expectancy of just 59 years. This is an example of an extreme, where too many people are flooding the limited resources available. The life expectancies of the LEDC's and MEDC's do have a clear trend, with few LEDCS having one over 60, (India is the highest above with 59) and few MEDC's having one below 76, (USA, being the lowest above with 76).
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