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AS and A Level: Global Interdependence & Economic Transition

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What do I need to know to get a top mark?

  1. 1 In order to understand this topic it pays to learn which countries are MEDCs (More Economically Developed Countries), LEDCs (Less Economically Developed Countries) or are somewhere in between (NICs - Newly Industrialised Countries)
  2. 2 To understand the current global economic situation it is worth learning more about the past. Study the history of global economic development, including colonialism and slavery, in order to understand the present.
  3. 3 Whatever your point of view, it is important to recognise that there are positive and negative aspects to globalisation.
  4. 4 Although this is largely an economic topic, it is important to understand the social, political, environmental and cultural aspects of globalisation too.
  5. 5 Learn the definitions for key indicators such as GDP, GNP, GNI, HDI, PQLI.

Common student errors that you should ensure you avoid

  1. 1 Some students seem to think that GDP per capita is the income that each person in a country actually has. It is just the total value of the goods and services produced by a country in a given period divided by the number of people in the country.
  2. 2 Don’t forget that even the richest countries contain some very poor people and the poorest countries contain some very rich people.
  3. 3 Just because China produces many industrial goods, does not mean that it is a More Economically Developed Country. It is better to call it a Newly Industrialised Country.
  4. 4 Some students continue to use the term “Third World” to describe less economically developed countries. This is now out of date and is probably best avoided.
  5. 5 The wealth of a country is not necessarily based on quantity of natural resources which it has. It is much more complicated than that!

Key global interdependence and economic transition facts

  1. 1 The USA is the world’s largest single-country economy, followed by China. If the European Union is taken as a single entity, it has a larger economy than the USA.
  2. 2 Economic growth in China has averaged more than 10% per year over the past 30 years.
  3. 3 The global economy was by the UNDP estimated to have value of over US$ 60 trillion in 2010.
  4. 4 The UNDP also estimated that there were over 10 million US$ millionaires in 2010, while more than 3 billion people earned less than US$ 2 per day.
  5. 5 The BRIC countries are Brazil, Russia, India, and China. They are major NICs which are thought to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development, without yet being classed as MEDCs.

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  1. The costs and benefits of tourism in Polar Regions

    There was no Antarctic tourism at this time with little or no demand and ships were usually too short of space anyway to allow non-working guests. Tourism has since been seen as an important development option for isolated regions in the Arctic that lack the population base and/or natural resources to allow them to pursue more traditional economic growth strategies (Milne et. al., 1995). This presents both opportunities and challenges; opportunities to increase awareness of Arctic environmental and conservation issues, whilst also providing a sustainable income for many northern communities.

    • Word count: 2552
  2. Benidorm Case Study

    Although the winters are wet, it rarely rains all day and it is usually mild enough for people to sit outside; Landscape - there are multiple sandy beaches, which sit beside the warm, blue Mediterranean Sea. Originally, these beaches were natural, but as years of erosion have steadily made them smaller, new, artificial beaches have been introduced. However, as these beaches are unnatural they do not last as long and are constantly having to be replaced; Location in relation to the rest of Europe - it is only a short 2-3 hour flight - depending on the conditions when you fly - to get to Benidorm from Britain, and less from countries which are further south.

    • Word count: 883
  3. Environmental Problems Related To Mining

    This is happening around the salt beds in Cheshire. The result is serve damage to buildings. * Unwanted rock material gets heaped up in tips. These are unsightly. They can be unsuitable and therefore dangerous. * Waste material gets washed in to streams and rivers. The sediment that builds up chokes rivers and alters their routes. * Everything for miles around may get covered with dust. * Poisonous compounds (for example lead, cadmium, and arsenic) are found in many ores.

    • Word count: 404
  4. If we could sort out the issue of debt, we could get on with development. Discuss this view of the crisis facing the world’s poorest countries.

    What problems dropping the debt would cause. * My opinion - Do I think the debts should be dropped? Why/why not? Would it help the countries to get on with development if the debts were dropped? The world's poorest countries are identified by having a GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of less than US $2000 per person per year. Countries included are Angola, Ethiopia, Zambia, Nicaragua and around 50 others. Development can be measured economically or socially. The economic measure would be the countries' GDPs - the total of a country's output per year, GNP - the value of all the production in the country (GDP)

    • Word count: 1286
  5. Cyprus: Perfect Holiday or Perfect Hell?

    The main source of income for Cyprus is now tourism, whereas before agriculture and farming were. Many farmers have been forced to quit farming, which had been in their families for decades, and replace their fields with supermarkets and cheap caf�s. Upon visiting one of the numerous tourist restaurants in Paphos, I found out what the owner thought of the current situation. When he had brought me my food, dressed in what was presumed to be a traditional Cypriot costume, we started speaking.

    • Word count: 1002
  6. The Social Costs and Benefits of A Business Activity - Paddington Basin

    They will try to make the area look more attractive as well as prestigious. The council's main interest in this project was to make sure there was not too much noise and pollution and if so, how they would deal with this, for example extra cleaners on the streets. Many of the local businesses were not bothered by the project; their main interest was only that the noise and pollution might deter customers. They were also pleased about the extra trade that is coming in thanks to the builders and other construction workers.

    • Word count: 6052
  7. Discuss the view that the growth of the Global Market Economy is incompatible with the Goal of Environmental Conservation.

    These processes have a damaging impact on all three of the WCS' objectives for Environmental conservation. However, possible answers to the problem may lie in science, technology or even in the economy itself. Simon Kuznet developed one hope of finding a common interest between a growth in the Global Market Economy and the goal of Environmental Conservation in 1955. Currently, most people in the world are too poor to have more concern over environmental degradation than over their personal income.

    • Word count: 1026
  8. History Coursework - Holidays In the Early Twentieth Century

    Seaside resorts, such as Blackpool, however were extremely cramped, as they were very popular and a lot of people could just about afford to travel there. the cramped conditions were highlighted by the fact that the family who owned the house would 'hutch' into as little space as possible. The source recalls one particular bank holiday when the house was more cramped than usual, with 49 people wanting potatoes in what was only a 'comfortable sized family house'. Blackpool was especially popular as those with the most limited amount of holiday money could afford a day trip there.

    • Word count: 2807
  9. PEST analysis report for three leisure firms that operate in different sectors of the market

    * A new government could bring many changes in regulations for the leisure industry and apply for new legislation. It could also give more emphasis in the cultural environment such as museums. * An unexpected war will be dramatic for the whole country in all sectors * Government's regulation for all the closing times of different firms that operates in leisure industry. For example pubs and bars must be closed at 11 o'clock and night-clubs at 02:00. * The government's decision to invest in leisure industry. National Lottery for example has detracted other established gambling business such as casino, bookmakers and bingo.

    • Word count: 4448
  10. Investigating the Impact of Travel & Tourism in the UK.

    These buildings are important to our natural heritage. * The maintenance of forests such as The New Forest as it is considered to be "environmentally sensitive" because of its unique landscape. * Reclamation to industrial land, which has become derelict and has been, regenerated for leisure use, for example the London Docklands. * The management of resources, this refers to the creation of facilities using natural resources, for example coves, nature trails and country parks. Tourism can also have negative environmental impacts.

    • Word count: 1637
  11. Changes to Stoke Bruerne between(1800 - 2001)

    (Visit). When the canal was built many jobs were created and with it people to fill the vacancies. (Whittaker Minutes). Houses were built for the people who worked on the canal, this was the start of Stoke Bruerne becoming a busy area during the canal era. (Visit). The boats struggled to get across the canal and so pathways were made either side of the canal so horses could walk along pulling the boats behind them. The horses could not pull the barges through Blisworth Hill so 'legers' would walk the barges through the tunnel, where the horses would again take over.

    • Word count: 1235
  12. Assess the socio-economic impacts of tourism in East Africa (15)

    The creation of the parks caused the native people, such as the Maasai, to be forced from the parks as no one was allowed to live in them. Tourists stay either in tents in the park or in hotels or villages on the outskirts of the park. Minibus safari trips take tourists round the park and let them view the animals. The creation of these parks has had a large impact on the people living in them, both socially and economically.

    • Word count: 1460
  13. What physical evidence for Ramsgate’s original late eighteenth and early nineteenth Century Sea – bathing and holiday making activities can you still see around you today?

    Parading at the front of the house would also have given the rich homeowners a chance to meet other people of the same class doing the same. As sea bathing and breathing in the sea air were fashionable at that time they would have also wanted to breathe in the sea air to improve their health, which they would have been able to, having a house on the sea front. Some houses in Wellington Crescent have boarded up windows because in c1727 a window tax was introduced which meant that you had to pay for each window you had and

    • Word count: 2400
  14. Letter to Local Planning Authorities from an Entrepreneurial Farmer

    2.2 Restriction of certain foot paths during lambing season. My second proposal is that the public footpaths which cut through my land are closed for the period of time when the lambs are at a stage where if they are disturbed they are easily scared because this leads to them growing to be unhealthy. Although I agree that the general public has the right to be able to experience this scenic and peaceful environment, but if they carry on passing through my fields as regularly and in the great numbers that they do then, especially during lambing season, my income and the role I play within the community will be impaired.

    • Word count: 1309
  15. Effective Environmental Impact Management through Ecotourism

    Although this is a relatively small percentage share it is not the volume that is significant but the fact that it is a type of tourism that attempts to minimise the negative effects of traditional mass tourism, be these economic, social or environmental (Doan, 2000). There has been a proliferation of ecotourism-related articles in professional journals since the late 1980s (Sirakaya, 1999) and due to the expansive nature of ecotourism the literature covers a multitude of topics. It is for this reason that for the purpose of this paper I have focused on the journals that are concerned particularly with the environmental impacts of ecotourism.

    • Word count: 3939
  16. Investigate and compare the development of tourism in two contrasting locations, showing the impacts of tourism on the physical environment and on the local community in the two locations.

    These are some of the many points, which are negative about tourism development in a country. GAMBIA The republic of Gambia is situated on the west coast of Africa, bordering North Atlantic Ocean and Senegal. Map of: source taken from http://www.newafrica.com/travel/highlights/details.asp?countryID=21 The, republic of Gambia, situated on the western coast of Africa, borders Senegal on the west, north and south, and the Atlantic ocean on the west. Gambia, it has an area of 11,000 sq km. Banjul is the capital of Gambia. As well as being the smallest country in Africa it comes with being one of the poorest too.

    • Word count: 2692
  17. Conservation in the Peak District National Park

    The Derbyshire Dales National Nature Reserve includes parts of 5 limestone dales and is managed by English Nature. Country Wildlife Trusts manage reserves totalling 300 hectares. (3) Policies Governing Activity Many organisations are involved in the Peak District National Park these are, * English Nature- the official body responsible for promoting nature conservation nationally. * English Heritage- responsible for archaeology and the built environment. * Peak Park Joint Planning Board- they formulate the conservation policy for the Peak Park. * National Trust, RSPB, Wildlife Trusts- are all also involved with the decisions about the Park.

    • Word count: 697
  18. How do I know anything?

    There is also the problem of perception. It is easy for us to perceive something to be different to what it really is. Magicians use optical illusions to fool us. If we are living in a simulated environment, then how can we break ourselves away from the perception that we are in, to separate ourselves from the simulation, and find out what the other reality is like? The closest technology has come to simulating environments is virtual reality. The environment is simulated, allowing humans to interact, although they may be elsewhere.

    • Word count: 861
  19. National Parks As Playgrounds

    I believe this to be a very interesting point. * I believe National Parks are playgrounds because they are enjoyed by visitors, and are not kept just to be preserved. They should be enjoyed while they are still here and Government needs to ensure that the National Parks are properly managed to preserve them for future generations. * All National Parks provide basic opportunities for walking, riding and fishing but some provide specialist attractions e.g. caving and pot holing in the limestone areas of the Brecon Beacons and the Peak District.

    • Word count: 951
  20. Viewpoints of the Great Carajas Project

    In Serra Pelada 80,000 Garimperos invaded a Gold mine and took it over. They were extracting around $200 million annually but although they were making good money, they are damaging the environment and working in a very unsafe manor. They are using mercury to separate the gold and this mercury was then getting into rivers and contaminating/poisoning them and various food chains.

    • Word count: 483
  21. Investigation. Hypothesis: Students from developing countries tend to associate the responsibility of global warming with developed countries.

    A person's gender may also have a bearing. This would therefore potentially change their mindset of which the questionnaire does not take into consideration. Hence to maintain consistency, a large group of students must be questioned, ranging from countries from Africa to India to Sweden. This will make the data as accurate as possible and make sure that each region is represented as even within their smaller nationalities, ideas are likely to differ. Method: 1. Two tables were constructed, Table 1 and Table 2.

    • Word count: 2000
  22. Explain the term 'Globalisation' (9)

    argues, ?Globalisation has a major feature of separation of time and space, known as Distanciation where disembedding occurs. Along with these features Harvey (1990) argues that the process is also compressed. Therefore, the whole idea of embedding involves around the displacement of originality from their space. For instance, objects such as credit cards are disembedded from their original physical context of coinage, or telephones and emails are disembedded from their original context of face-to-face communication.

    • Word count: 530
  23. Assess the extent to which technological Innovation has unforesen social, economic and environmental costs

    Due to incomplete combustion of the fuel, carbon particulates are released into the air. This is seen in not only the production of technology, but in transport too. Despite more cars becoming more fuel efficient, 99.99% of all cars (1.2bn worldwide) run on fossil fuels. Although some cars have catalytic converters, carbon particulates are released in the older cars. When consumed these particles can cause serious health issues such as asthma and in some cases lung disease. Serious health problems that can sometimes lead to fatalities. The automotive industry is worth over $1.6 trillion, and provides 7.25 million jobs.

    • Word count: 1447

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