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AS and A Level: Global Interdependence & Economic Transition
Meet our team of inspirational teachers
What do I need to know to get a top mark?
- 1 In order to understand this topic it pays to learn which countries are MEDCs (More Economically Developed Countries), LEDCs (Less Economically Developed Countries) or are somewhere in between (NICs - Newly Industrialised Countries)
- 2 To understand the current global economic situation it is worth learning more about the past. Study the history of global economic development, including colonialism and slavery, in order to understand the present.
- 3 Whatever your point of view, it is important to recognise that there are positive and negative aspects to globalisation.
- 4 Although this is largely an economic topic, it is important to understand the social, political, environmental and cultural aspects of globalisation too.
- 5 Learn the definitions for key indicators such as GDP, GNP, GNI, HDI, PQLI.
Common student errors that you should ensure you avoid
- 1 Some students seem to think that GDP per capita is the income that each person in a country actually has. It is just the total value of the goods and services produced by a country in a given period divided by the number of people in the country.
- 2 Don’t forget that even the richest countries contain some very poor people and the poorest countries contain some very rich people.
- 3 Just because China produces many industrial goods, does not mean that it is a More Economically Developed Country. It is better to call it a Newly Industrialised Country.
- 4 Some students continue to use the term “Third World” to describe less economically developed countries. This is now out of date and is probably best avoided.
- 5 The wealth of a country is not necessarily based on quantity of natural resources which it has. It is much more complicated than that!
Key global interdependence and economic transition facts
- 1 The USA is the world’s largest single-country economy, followed by China. If the European Union is taken as a single entity, it has a larger economy than the USA.
- 2 Economic growth in China has averaged more than 10% per year over the past 30 years.
- 3 The global economy was by the UNDP estimated to have value of over US$ 60 trillion in 2010.
- 4 The UNDP also estimated that there were over 10 million US$ millionaires in 2010, while more than 3 billion people earned less than US$ 2 per day.
- 5 The BRIC countries are Brazil, Russia, India, and China. They are major NICs which are thought to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development, without yet being classed as MEDCs.
Nike?s factories are in every continent except Africa, due to their lack of infrastructure and industrial power. Though Nike has 124 factories in China, 73 in Thailand and 34 in Vietnam. These would all be regarded as less economically developed countries, as the majority of their population lives in poverty or deprivation. The spread of the TNC Nike, shows how it has grown to reach all areas of the globe, it has around 700 stores around the world and in 2015 sold 120,000,000 pair of shoes, most of which would have been mostly made in Asia and exported to countries all around the world.
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Outline and suggest reasons for the issues facing countries at very low levels of economic development
Therefore developed countries need to encourage them to trade as this will help employ more people in that country. This will improve the living standard within a country as more people will begin earning a living and can then begin to escape the poverty cycle and send their children to school that can become more skilled in the future. It?s also worth noting that it is often cheaper to employ people in poorer countries meaning goods can be produced for import to developed countries at a lower cost than if employed internally.
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Evidently, India is not a developed country in these areas, due to the restrictive climate. Because some countries have a perfect climate for crop production, their development can excel beyond those with a poor climate, hence the uneven nature of development. Similarly, countries with limited water cannot produce a lot of food nor expand water fuelled industries e.g. cotton farming, having the same consequences for development as an extreme climate. For example, the North of China is extremely dry, which is affecting the expansion of coal mining; since most of the reserves are in the arid North and remain untapped.
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While the rest of the world moves on and forward as you sit still and watch because of cultural or, economic, or education deficiencies, will result in social inequality. Example of inequality It?s really greed that causes inequality. Someone gets the idea to capitalize on something....let's take Walmart for example. Sam Walton got the idea to create a store that had everything in it. That idea expanded to an international corporation that has one goal: profit. Now Walmart isn't "evil" because it's a corporation.
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Europeans could portray themselves as modern, civilised, superior and progressive when compared with indigenous peoples, like the Australian aboriginals, who they believed were none of these things. Early modernists also believe that the British were naturally intelligent and had a natural capacity for ruling over others.
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This is the total value of goods and services produced in a year, this measures a country?s wealth. A highly developed country will have a high GDP e.g. Germany?s was $3.57 trillion in 2011. GDP is found by dividing the total GDP of the country by its population, which makes GDP fairly easy to measure and obtain than other indicators. This one figure also plainly shows whether an economy is contracting or expanding, which enables a country to be separated into either a developed or developing country. Furthermore, since GDP is a quantitative measurement it can be used to compare countries and used to create a hierarchy of countries. However there are limitations to its use and validity.
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Therefore, over time, the north of Italy becomes increasingly attractive to tourists as it further develops. According to Myrdal in the Core Periphery Model, ? The spatial inequalities are as an integral part of economic development?. Therefore, as development increases in the core, it will eventually lead to inequalities and the formation of the development gap. A reason why the Mezzogiorno hasn?t been developing is because it has poor accessibility and therefore, there?s a lack of trade, which can help to economically develop the country.
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(1b) Using named examples, evaluate the economic and political impacts of disruption to energy supply pathways.(15)
Hence matters are quite often stretched further when key players such as OPEC represent countries like Saudia Arabia and Iran in the Middle East, as well as determine oil prices. This may place stress upon the USA who suffers from energy insecurity due to its energy deficit and due to its reliance and need for oil may have to face as well as conform to rises in oil prices. As, it is now believed that the control over energy prices is in the hands of the suppliers due to the combination of a lack of energy reserves for finite resources and huge global demand for natural resources.
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To what extent do Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) meet the development needs of African countries ?
Oxfam gave fresh water to thousands of men, women and children during the recent East African Famine. In addition to short-term aid, long-term aid is also sometimes provided due to serious problems which effect development such as war and corruption. All NGOs work towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and as part of long-term aid they gradually try to eradicate poverty and ensure all children have at least primary education. In Angola, education programmes have lead to a 300% increase in primary school enrolment specifically in girls. However, even though aid can help a country it can also create a dependency culture in the recipient country.
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From 1965 to 2006, the UK?s population grew from 54,350,000 to 60,245,000. This equates to 3.6 tonnes oil equivalent per person per annum in 1965 and 3.8 tonnes oil equivalent per person per annum in 2005. The increased demand puts pressure on supplies. It means the UK has to depend more heavily upon energy imports ? and this exposes the country to greater energy security risks, hence why having a wide range of energy types is essential to being energy secure. I aim to determine the UK?s main energy types and how they make the country energy secure or not.
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It may seem that the spice trade in ancient times and modern production of conventional foods have nothing in common, but many similarities can be found between them.
In De re coquinaria (Cookbook) by Apicius, more than 75% of the recipes contain pepper (Turner, 70). It was not only used in luxurious dishes such as fattened bird or wild boar, but also in sauces that accompanied the main dish. For instance, pepper was one of the ingredients in sharp sauce, digestive sauce, as well as in a sauce served with poultry (Turner, 70). Clearly, pepper was a prevailing ingredient in the Roman cuisine. In modern times, corn plays a role similar to that of pepper about two thousand years ago.
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In 2011 Oxfam was chosen as the Charity of the Year for the Virgin London Marathon, which is a watched by millions of people, raising lots of funds. Also Oxfam branches all over the world joined up to launch the GROW campaign and help create a world where everyone always has enough to eat. With money and support Oxfam helps poor people to help themselves all over the world, it has natural disasters response teams, for example as responded in the Haiti earthquake, the latest Yemen crisis, and in the Sahel region of West Africa where there is a food shortage.
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So long as there is a demand for a product, the people in developing countries will stay in work and earn very little money instead of having an education, which in the long run would enable them to earn a better wage, improving their lives and their country?s economy. In the UK 40% of the food has been imported. 3. How do you change it all? We can help the third world countries by buying fair trade products such as bananas and chocolate, also by buying ethically sourced clothes and products and by putting pressure on businesses which are discovered
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Assess the view that the relationship between superpowers and the developing world is a neo-colonial one
The developed world is draining these countries of human capital (the ?brain drain?) and resources (minerals, ores, food.) Neo ?colonialism is basically an extension of this dependency theory. You can argue that the pattern of aid is a vital mechanism of neo-colonialism rather than developed countries simply trying to support the world?s most needy countries. The US are using aid as a ?political weapon? - the top 4 recipients of USA foreign aid are not actually LDCs ,instead they are key geopolitical allies of the US e.g.
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Advise the UK government on which primary energy resources would be best to develop over the next 20 years.
It burns more cleanly than other hydrocarbon fuels, such as oil and coal, and it also produces less carbon dioxide. For an equivalent amount of heat, burning natural gas produces about 30% less carbon dioxide than burning petroleum and about 45% less than burning coal. Gas from the North Sea has provided Britain with a regular supply since the mid 1960s when the first discoveries were made. However, UK supplies from the North peaked in 1999, since when production has fallen by around half (see graph to the right).
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Problems within geopolitics has also caused problems for the UK?s energy security as prices fluctuate, changing the amount of oil we can export and how much we have to pay for our imported energy. Past When BP records began, the UK was getting 98% of its primary energy from burning fossil fuels like oil, natural gas and coal mainly due to the increasing transportation and power generation sectors. Pre-1976, the UK was a large importer of oil due to the fact there were very few known oil sources that could be used domestically.
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Newly industrialised countries have been, and continue to be, the driving force of globalisation. To what extent do you agree?
7.49 4.06  1. Reference to Asian Tigers 2. Reference to the growth of china 3. Globalisation of services, with particular reference to India 4. A Newly industrialised country (NIC) is a country that has experienced rapid growth in its manufacturing sector since 1960. Examples to such locations include Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong, which are known collectively as the ?Asian Tigers?. In these countries, their GDP coming from the manufacturing sector has expanded so that it surpasses the growth of the primary and tertiary sectors. 1. Globalisation is the process in which the world?s economies, societies and cultures have become integrated globally throughout a global network of communications, transport and trade.
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for development. In Sub-Saharan Africa civil wars and regional conflicts have prevented progress because the resources that should have been devoted to development have in fact been lost through armed conflict. An example of this is Somalia, in east Africa with a Human Development Index of just 0.284, where 20 years of civil war has created lawlessness, anarchy and a state without an official government, since 1991. Islamic insurgents including the Al-Shabaab group, with an estimated 14,000 militants and connections to Al-Qaeda, have controlled much of southern Somalia since 2008.
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Europe for example heavily relied on Russian imports of gas as a main source of energy from 1965-2005. This means that Europe is dependant on other countries to have sourced the gas. This shows that if anything was to happen between Russia and Europe, and the supply of gas was to cease, Europe would not be energy secure and therefore cause disruption to the global economy. Moreover the USA is a country that heavily relies on oil as its main source of energy and consumes around 20 million barrels a day, which equates to 25% of the worlds energy.
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Politically, the integration of politics in global scale has fastened the development of globalization. Traditional politics have been undertaken within national political systems. Political activities, increasingly take place at the global level for instance democratization process, multipartism, formation of NGO?s, Civil Society Organizations as well as international organizations. ASPECTS OF GLOBALIZATION Globalization as an economic associated with the following major aspects; Information and communication technology. Globalization is characterized by advancement of information and communication technology. This sector expanded drastically within the last few years especially by the last quarter of the twentieth century.
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Poverty in Guyana lies at 43% of the population (2011) with 29% living in absolute poverty (www.worldbank.org ). This is because Guyana has suffered from several problems over the last few years that have worsened poverty, including the rise in oil prices, unpredicted rainfall and flooding in 2004 and high crime rates (Guyana?s poverty reduction paper, 2005). In order to alleviate poverty and fight these issues the government enforced a poverty reduction strategy paper that would refocus public expenditure to improve infrastructure, health, education and employment.
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China located in the continent of Asia is an example of how globalisation is mainly an economic process, it is now known to some as, ?the workshop of the world? commonly used to describe Great Britain?s industrial revolution this could be similar after China?s Cultural Revolution and Deng Xiaoping?s economic reforms led them to integrate themselves into the Global economy as they opened up a more mixed economy and a more market based system. This is shown as in 2002 exports to other countries had increased by 21% to $322 billion.
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With reference to one or more examples, evaluate the success of redevelopment of urban centres in response to recent trends in retailing.
My main example for this, is Reading, a large town located in south-west England, on the M4. The centre is ever-changing, but since 1969 work on the centre has been boosted, especially in terms of redevelopment, due to several large out-of-town retail centres, such as Forbury Park. So, the retail in the centre needed improvements to bring people back in. A large part of it was the pedestrianisation of broad street in 1970 ? making the centre car-free, leaving a much greater capacity for shopping, as well as making it safer and more attractive to those potential spenders.
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in India expanded 7.7 percent in the second quarter of 2011 over the previous quarter. Historically, from 2000 until 2011, India's average quarterly GDP Growth was 7.45 percent reaching an historical high of 11.80 percent in December of 2003 and a record low of 1.60 percent in December of 2002. India's diverse economy includes traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for more than half of India's output with less than one third of its labor force.
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