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AS and A Level: Global Interdependence & Economic Transition

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What do I need to know to get a top mark?

  1. 1 In order to understand this topic it pays to learn which countries are MEDCs (More Economically Developed Countries), LEDCs (Less Economically Developed Countries) or are somewhere in between (NICs - Newly Industrialised Countries)
  2. 2 To understand the current global economic situation it is worth learning more about the past. Study the history of global economic development, including colonialism and slavery, in order to understand the present.
  3. 3 Whatever your point of view, it is important to recognise that there are positive and negative aspects to globalisation.
  4. 4 Although this is largely an economic topic, it is important to understand the social, political, environmental and cultural aspects of globalisation too.
  5. 5 Learn the definitions for key indicators such as GDP, GNP, GNI, HDI, PQLI.

Common student errors that you should ensure you avoid

  1. 1 Some students seem to think that GDP per capita is the income that each person in a country actually has. It is just the total value of the goods and services produced by a country in a given period divided by the number of people in the country.
  2. 2 Don’t forget that even the richest countries contain some very poor people and the poorest countries contain some very rich people.
  3. 3 Just because China produces many industrial goods, does not mean that it is a More Economically Developed Country. It is better to call it a Newly Industrialised Country.
  4. 4 Some students continue to use the term “Third World” to describe less economically developed countries. This is now out of date and is probably best avoided.
  5. 5 The wealth of a country is not necessarily based on quantity of natural resources which it has. It is much more complicated than that!

Key global interdependence and economic transition facts

  1. 1 The USA is the world’s largest single-country economy, followed by China. If the European Union is taken as a single entity, it has a larger economy than the USA.
  2. 2 Economic growth in China has averaged more than 10% per year over the past 30 years.
  3. 3 The global economy was by the UNDP estimated to have value of over US$ 60 trillion in 2010.
  4. 4 The UNDP also estimated that there were over 10 million US$ millionaires in 2010, while more than 3 billion people earned less than US$ 2 per day.
  5. 5 The BRIC countries are Brazil, Russia, India, and China. They are major NICs which are thought to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development, without yet being classed as MEDCs.

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  1. What is the impact of Tourism and Recreation on Epping Forest?

    The trip to Epping Forest will help me in my studies significantly, due to the fact that I will be able to witness first hand; whether or not Epping Forest is a place to be known for recreation and tourism; theories related to impacts of tourism and recreation on the forest will also be analysed and evidence produced. Evidence will include a range of statistics ranging from soil compaction to the tallest plant; wildlife and entirely natural plant life may also become a strong factor for inclusion.

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  2. Australian church groups have found the destruction of old growth forests as unethical. Father Paul Collins, a catholic priest, said according to (The age, 1995) that "To totally destroy some of the most extraordinary

    This was met by strong opposition and criticism from environmentalists and the public alike, "cultivate and care for God's Creation" (Genesis 2:15). This contrasted with the forestry industry which praised the change, saying that the economic future of small towns depends on the decision being made, "Created in the image and likeness of God, we are granted dominion over the rest of Creation (Genesis 1:26-28). With an election approaching and the public opposing the increase in logging, the government had no choice but to drop the proposal in need of the public vote, this angered the timber workers, and as

    • Word count: 1328
  3. "With reference to one or more case studies consider the impact oftourism in the last 30 years on urban areas in the MEDW."

    The very recent phenomenon in the past 4 or 5 years of budget airlines like Go and Easyjet have made getting onto a plane, as easy as getting on to a bus or train, at very reasonable prices. This means the provision of access to the major airport hubs and urban centres, (like Barcelona, Rome, New York and London) is amazingly quick, simple, and cheap. Primary resources are the attractions that a tourist primarily goes to see or experience. In Cambridge, tourists visit to experience the wonderful colleges and university which is world famous.

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  4. Case Study: An Overpopulated Country - Bangladesh

    Examples of alternative forms of tourism include nature tourism and eco-tourism. The need for alternative tourism can be summed up as follows. Some travellers are getting bored and dissatisfied with traditional mass tourism destinations, and hope to seek out unique, pristine destinations. Also, the growth of global environmental awareness and the conservation movement increases travellers' awareness of problems associated with mass tourism. Increasingly, destination populations and governments are increasingly aware of the dangers arising from the negative impacts of tourism.

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  5. GCSE Geographical Investigation

    As families began to develop more and more disposable income in which they could use to buy cars etc. With this came family individuality, this meant that family's who wanted to go out into the countryside didn't have to wait for a long and uncomfortable bus journey to get into places of natural beauty. The questions that I will be answering in my essay are as follows: 1) Is there a need for conservation and stewardship in the Upper Derwent Valley? 2) Is the area managed in order to conserve the environment in the Upper Derwent Valley?

    • Word count: 520
  6. Can developing countries ever catch up with developed countries

    How, then, should the problem of underdevelopment be contextualised and analysed within the discipline of International Relations? This essay will juxtapose two competing types of theory associated respectively with the development and dependency problematics. The mainstream model, associated with liberal- and realist-inspired approaches in I.R. and I.P.E. and with the discourse of mainstream economists and development specialists (not least those employed by the dominant global institutions themselves), suggests that development is a problem of national economic insufficiency. Nation-states are viewed as distinct entities, related to one another through external relations such as trade. The problem of underdevelopment is assumed to arise because underdeveloped countries have not marshalled their economic resources as effectively as have developed ones.

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  7. Case Study: An Overpopulated Country - Bangladesh

    The public sector is often needed to initiate sustainable tourism management. For example, since 1997, the Pattaya Rehabilitation Project, initiated by government authorities and community leaders, has been ongoing to reduce the severity of problems in Pattaya. Also, Zimbabwe initiated the CAMPFIRE program which aided ecotourism development in many communities. One problem faced in achieving sustainability is the availability of funds. It is often hard to gain financial support from the private sector when their motives are profit-based. The government can implement taxes on tourism to finance tourism management.

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  8. Environmental Impacts of Tourism

    It is separated from the mainland by the Menai Strait, which is spanned by two picturesque bridges, the Menai Bridge and the Britannia Bridge. Go HRW [on line] Multi Map [on line] Anglesey is the largest island off the Welsh and English coast and its landscape reveals a vast number of archaeological and historical episodes. The Vikings settled on the island and used the name Anglesey in honour of Ongull and before them the Romans referred to the island as Mona, hence the islands Welsh name - Ynys M�n.

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  9. The 19th century saw Weston grow from a tiny village of about 100 inhabitants, to a thriving Victorian seaside resort of nearly 20,000 people.

    On an average August Bank Holiday 15,000 passengers would arrive on the steamers, however Portishead had either a Horse and Cart, or a small train which couldn't hold many people. Another Reason Weston grew was because of health. By the middle of the 18th century, Dr Russell began to think that drinking, and bathing in, sea-water was good for your health and for the inhabitants of Bristol and Bath, Weston was the nearest coastal village within distance.

    • Word count: 581
  10. The Geography of Travel and Tourism - Summative Assignment Djibouti Djibouti is a late 19th century city with a distinctly Arabic feel. It boarders the Gulf of Aden

    Since the country gained independence in 1977 there are still many French themes for example clothing and French food delicacies. Djibouti isn't known for its mass tourist attractions, its economy is based on service activities connected with the country's location and status as a free trade zone in northeast Africa. Djibouti provides services as both a transit port, a international transhipment and refuelling centre, Djibouti has very few natural resources and little industry which is why it is therefore dependent on foreign assistance to help support its balance of payments and to finance development projects.

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  11. Should Vietnam Concentrate on Tourism for its Economic Development?

    Tourism, of course, makes a huge amount of money; it could be hundreds of millions every year. For example places like Barcelona have become huge, great cities full of people thanks to the money made from tourism. Tourism also creates lots of new jobs for the people living in the country and some people who will come to work in Vietnam from other countries. The new jobs will trickle right down to the farmers who grow the food for the people who sell food to the hotels. This means it will be very good for agriculture, giving farmers more money to buy more land and grow more crops.

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  12. Tourism's Potential to Fly South Africa, Clipped by Greed

    As it stands, South Africa's tourism industry has it all wrong, suffocating its own potential for growth through the greed of a few operators. The pricing regimes of the prime tourism district are obviously meant for the international tourist coming from countries that enjoy a higher currency exchange rate. The logic is to make a killer out of these visitors. In due course, local tourism is highly inhibited and discouraged. It is also very likely that the lower earners from the targeted countries are also denied entry into these high price zones.

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  13. Analyse the reasons for and the consequences of the economic development of polar and sub-polar regions

    In addition, Canada and Siberia had significant deposits of iron-ore, copper, zinc and uranium, which led to commercial trade. Another factor, which even today is still extremely important, is the abundant fish supplies. As demand for fish increased worldwide, fishing increased dramatically in countries such as Iceland and Norway, which led to trade and selling fish on world markets, which made an enormous contribution to their national economies. One region in particular, which has experienced severe economic growth and development, is the state of Alaska.

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  14. Spain: European Studies

    Considering their top class player such as Raul, Casillas, Salgado, Campos, Guti, Morientes, Victor, Valeron, Tristan and Xavi, Spain haven't got the best World Cup record: World Cup Record: Qualified: 1934, 1950, 1962, 1966,1978 1982, 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998, 2002 Best achievement: 4th, 1950 Biggest Win: 6-1 vs. Bulgaria, 1998 Biggest Lost: 1-6 vs. Brazil, 1950 Spain's best ever finish in the World Cup is 4th in the 1950's when they didn't have Raul, Morientes or Xavi but instead they had Euzebio, which is considered to be Spain's best ever player and the third ever best player in the world.

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  15. Tourism is a booming global industry. Discuss

    The links between economic development and growth in tourism can be related to Rostow's model of economic development. As countries pass through the different stages, from a traditional society, such as Sierra Leone, to a high mass consumption society, such as the UK or South Korea, economic and social conditions allow the wealthy people and eventually the working classes to take domestic and finally international holidays. This is because over time, a country's wealth and infrastructure increases, allowing more money to be spent on the tourism industry. In addition, as more tourists enter the country, more money is earned through tourist spending, which can be used for further development.

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  16. Should new Runway space be built in the South -east?

    After the completion of the reports, Heathrow was selected as being the optimum site for expansion. However whilst Heathrow was considered to be the best option with regard to benefits for the passengers and airline industry, it was calculated to have had the greatest disadvantages in respect of noise, use of land and demolition of property. On hearing that Heathrow had been selected as first choice on providing a new runway, the London Borough of Hillingdon objected strongly! Their reasons for the objections included: loss of green belt; farming land; forfeiture of national heritage buildings; ecological damage; demolition of homes; and greater noise levels, pollution and congestion.

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  17. GlobalizationHonda puts cost-effective plants in areas that best meet the needs of local customers. They call this strategy "glocalization", w

    In 1972, Honda introduced the Honda Civic and began claiming the automobile world. Later that year, Honda introduced the more powerful and higher-priced Honda Accord. The Accord became one of the best-selling cars in the US, and is still one of the most bought cars throughout the world. In the 1980s Honda launched a division to produce luxury cars named Acura. By 1990, behind Toyota and Nissan, Honda was the third-largest Japanese automaker. Although sales began to decrease due to the new American automakers designs and popularity of the SUVs, this did not shake Honda.

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  18. For two Economic Models, briefly describe the Model, and carefully compare and contrast their application to any one developing country.Introduction - India

    There are over one Billion people in India, so those at university count for around 1% of the population. There is an expanding social benefits package within the economy, allowing people to retire at 55 with a state pension, however, this is not enough to live on alone at the minute. Unfortunately, like many developing countries, there are weaknesses within the system, and so it is open to corruption. However, the Government are putting a lot of time into closing the gaps and loopholes. Although all this looks promising, there are still around 27% below the international poverty line, this is far greater in some areas.

    • Word count: 2529
  19. Does the Environment matter to Sociology?

    'Environmental degradation is no longer a peripheral concern of the social sciences.... it is an unavoidable and pressing reality.' (David Goldblatt, 1996:5) Substantial references to the environment are generally limited within classical sociology. Primarily, sociologists have focused on the evolution of social interaction and cultural change. In the first half of the 19th century both Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer considered sociology to be epistemologically and ontologically dependent on, or subordinate to, biology. Comte drew on biological analogies and metaphors of form and function and to explore the interrelationship of individuals and institutions in modern society (David Goldblatt, 1996:2).

    • Word count: 1647
  20. The Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC)

    The development of MSC was initiated based on the following rationales: * The recognition that Malaysia was losing its comparative advantage in its traditional economic sectors; * The need to drive the economy towards higher productivity through technology and high value-added economic activities; * Knowledge Economy and converging technologies presented the best opportunities for socio-economic transformation. * The need for the adoption & application of ICT to enhance national competitiveness and to help bridge the Digital Divide. In order to accelerate the transition of Malaysia to information Age, the MSC provides an appropriate strategy to achieve the objective through collaborative approach - combining world-class companies and local companies.

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  21. How Does Tourism Affect Hong Kong?

    Private costs are costs paid by economic decision makers. Private benefit is benefit received by economic decision makers. Social costs and social benefits are costs and benefits associated with the society. * Private Benefit + External Benefit = Social Benefit * Private Cost + External Cost = Social Cost This Social Cost and Benefit graph clearly shows the system of tourism. The private cost of tourism is the money spent by the government or private sectors to lure more tourists into Hong Kong.

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  22. What makes a country wealthy?

    According to Purchasing power parity, Indian economy is at fourth number in the world with GDP of $3.36 trillion. In the end of first quarter of 2005-2006 India stood second fastest growing economy nation with GDP growth rate of 8.1. Indian economy mainly consists of agriculture, industries, handicraft and services. At this time, service sector of India is playing a major role in the growth of Indian economy. GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT GDP is used to show the actual condition of the country's economy.GDP is used to express the total value of the goods and services produced with in the domestic territory of a country during a specific period of time.GDP considers only the final value of goods and services consumed by the final users not the input of other goods in the final goods and services.

    • Word count: 2617
  23. What role can Finance play in developing the Nigerian Business Environment? A Case Study of the International Finance Corporation in Nigeria.

    We don't necessarily want to lend tons of money to Nigeria, because Nigeria has lots of resources. We can contribute in terms of providing advice, transferring technology, providing technical know-how in social, environmental and corporate governance issues" Indeed, the nature of IFC operations globally and increasingly in Nigeria were such that contribution was becoming greater in terms of technology, advice, social development, environmental assistance, corporate governance and ethical issues, and global competitiveness concerns. IFC had begun to realize that their market, and indeed their business model had reached a pivotal moment wherein clients had begun to expect more than just project finance deals and long term syndications.

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  24. Information technology and National development

    5. Internet, furthermore, avails news about sports, games, politics, health, through relevant websites. This further serves the purpose of entertaining the users. 2. GOVERNANCE IT is the chief driving for re-engineering and transforming the government to with the needs of the citizenry .This is achieved through the use of IS for managing security and government offices. For instance, extensive computerization of various government offices, not only easens operations, but also enhances transparency in the day-to-day operations. a typical example is the computerization of the E.C.K. offices.This enhances registration of voters at a faster rate as it is the case to retreiving such information when required Furthermore, IT improves acces to public information for all the citizens, and this further, leads 6to accountability and sustainance of a democratic and fully participatory society.

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  25. Select two recent or current developments in the travel and tourism industry and explain how these developments have affected career opportunities and job roles within the industry

    This could have affect on jobs, as computerisation will lead to less paper work. Computers are also used to access the Internet and customers are seeing the benefits of using this method of booking. Online booking also cuts out paying the travel agent commission; prices are also generally lower on the Internet. A new type of travel agent is appearing on the Internet, which specialises in e-commerce (electronic business) and example of this type of organisation is Expedia. Organisations such as this can be used to book all the principles of a holiday in one place.

    • Word count: 694

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