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AS and A Level: Population & Settlement

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 38
  • Peer Reviewed essays 2
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Outline and Evaluate Hardin's 'Lifeboat Ethics'.

    5 star(s)

    Not only are many of the assumptions made by Hardin questionably accurate, the lifeboat metaphor itself is too. Hardin fails to represent the situation and the effects of his proposals as they truly are and his argument remains unconvincing. Indeed, by demonstrating his metaphor to be mistaken, it is possible to provide a better representation of the circumstances. From here, a strong case for helping the poor can be given. Throughout his argument, Hardin draws on his original portrayal of the earth's nations as lifeboats to present a picture of what he terms "the real world". Hardin's major metaphor appears simple but it could be claimed that it is so to the point that it can be considered over-simplistic and unrepresentative.

    • Word count: 1338
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Factors affecting rates of population change across the world.

    5 star(s)

    This development gave the citizens of Italy much improved health care provision, which in turn gave the country a decreased infant mortality rate and a much greater life expectancy. Whilst one would have expected an increase in the growth rates following this decline in infant mortality, as more children survive, the effect was much less clear-cut in Italy. In many other countries where industrialisation was much slower, there was indeed a large increase in rates of population change as infant mortality and death rates decreased whilst birth rates remained high.

    • Word count: 1367
  3. Marked by a teacher

    With reference to examples, evaluate the success of the schemes that have been implemented in an attempt to solve the problems of housing in cities in LEDC's

    5 star(s)

    Also if lower rents were implied the schemes would have been too costly. After the failure of these schemes the organizations implied new schemes and that was the upgrading of the slums by providing one bath and toilet per ten families, one public fountain per twenty families, one street light per 40m of road and one pre school per 200 families. Other schemes were required to be self-financing after, the City, the State or World Bank provided the initial investment through loans and setting up self-help schemes. These schemes encouraged greater community involvement.

    • Word count: 1361
  4. Marked by a teacher

    Does the demographic transition model still provide a 21st century framework for looking at demographical change in countries which are experiencing development? To what extent is the tool really useful or should we make it obsolete?

    4 star(s)

    In stage 3 birth rates fall rapidly, to about 16 per 1000 people, while death rates continue to fall slowly (12 per 1000) to give a slowly increasing population. During stage 4 both birth rates (12-16 per 1000) and death rates (10-12 per 1000) remain low, fluctuating slightly to give a steady population. The 5th stage of the DTM shows an ageing population where birth rate has fallen bellow replacement level; it is the only stage that experiences a decline in population.

    • Word count: 1754
  5. Marked by a teacher

    Rebranding in the london docklands: case study

    4 star(s)

    From the information in the photo and also the report, one can deduce that this area, once holding low quality housing for the working class population of the Docklands, has now been transformed into an upmarket residential area offering a home to business men and women who work in the central business district. But, when only moving a small distance, approximately, 2000 feet, one meets an area were regeneration is 'currently in progress' looking closely at figure 1.2, we see at approximately 429 Westferry Road, a large super structure which at one point was a warehouse in the industrial era and now is simply a steel skeletal structure.

    • Word count: 1597
  6. Marked by a teacher

    Britain between 1750-1900

    4 star(s)

    The annual death rate had fallen to 18 deaths per 1000 people and the birth rate was falling too. One reason why population grew was because of the improvement in health and hygiene. People did not know that germs caused disease and they could do little to fight diseases like smallpox, diphtheria, which killed many people. Only simple operations were possible because there were no blood transfusions, and patients often died from infection. But in 1825 little had changed. A vaccination had been developed for smallpox, but there were no other vaccinations or drugs because people still didn't know that germs caused disease.

    • Word count: 1193
  7. Marked by a teacher

    Outline the theories Malthus and Boserup on impacts of population growth.

    4 star(s)

    Malthus said that there were only two kinds of checks that limited population growth; Preventative Checks - these are to reduce birth rate. Positive Checks - these are to increase the death rate Malthus had several ways of doing this. Preventative checks, the ways of doing this were; Moral Restraint, the aim of this one was that if you had a smaller family then when wealth was distributed it would be in larger amounts for each family member (this was aimed more towards the wealthier half of the population).

    • Word count: 1041
  8. Marked by a teacher

    Urban microclimate investigation.

    4 star(s)

    Hypothesis: There is a significant relationship between temperature and distance from the CBD of Stourbridge. Null Hypothesis: There is no significant relationship between temperature and distance from the CBD of Stourbridge. Development of a Strategy To prove/disprove the hypothesis of this investigation, temperature data needs to be recorded in the CBD of Stourbridge and in a near by rural area. Data also needs to be collected for points in between to give clearer results. This ought to be done on a straight line running from Stourbridge CBD though the town, out into the suburbs and then into the most rural area possible.

    • Word count: 1020
  9. Marked by a teacher

    Problems In Tokyo.

    4 star(s)

    The local administration has to cope with its citizens' "NIMBY" (Not-In-My-Back-Yard) attitudes. The average weight of daily waste per person has almost doubled in the past two decades, and in the metropolitan areas is twice as great as that in the metropolitan areas. In Tokyo, 1.1-1.3 kg of waste per person has to be collected daily. In the city of Tokyo alone, two-thirds of the total waste (2.6 million tons per year) is processed (burnt), while the other one-third is used for landfill in the Bay.

    • Word count: 1280
  10. Marked by a teacher

    Central Business District (Cbd) Investigation

    4 star(s)

    Large businesses exist here since they are the only ones able to afford the high land values and rents. The inner city is the 2nd zone in the burgess model. This zone represents old industry established at the birth of the city. The third zone is known as the "Low-class residential" which is located in the inner city close to the old industries. This was because the poor who worked in these industries had to be local. The medium class residential represents the penultimate zone. This is more expensive housing catering for the moderately wealthy populace. The final zone is the high class residential located in the rural urban fringe.

    • Word count: 1110
  11. Marked by a teacher

    How Do Human and Natural Factors Affect the Global Population Distribution?

    4 star(s)

    These basic factors that were there 100's of years ago influenced where people live now. The area grew as resources got better and better and London eventually became what it is today. One of the main factors affecting where people settle is the relief of the land. People tend to settle in areas with low lying, flat land a good example of an area like this is The Netherlands, the land is completely flat and therefor it is highly populated. Areas though that are steep and rugged are a lot less likely to attract people, there are hard to access and facilities are difficult to build on them.

    • Word count: 1552
  12. Marked by a teacher

    With reference to one recent major international conflict, access and analyse the geographical impacts of the conflict on the area(s) involved. Israel and Palestine.

    3 star(s)

    Many Jews moved there before Israel's declaration to start new lives and set up communities after fleeing Russia. Approximately 20% of the Israeli population are Arabs, who are mainly descendents of Palestinians who previously lived in the country before it became Israel. The Palestinians are mainly Muslim Arabs although a small number are Christians. Unlike the Israelis, the Palestinians do not have a country which they can call their own. They come from Palestine, which was mostly given to Israel in 1948. What remains is the Gaza Strip, which was captured from Egypt, and the West Bank, captured from Jordan.

    • Word count: 1159
  13. Marked by a teacher

    Urban problems are the same the world over and require the same solutions To what extent do you agree with this view?

    3 star(s)

    The main housing problems stem from the overpopulation in the cities as people have nowhere to live so set up shanty towns and squatter settlements wherever space is available. This is why favelas in Mexico City have become such as a problem. As the cities are becoming a much more appealing place for things such as work, education and facilities, rural to urban migration in countries where LEDC's are developing most rapidly, such as Mexico City, is making the problem for housing in these cities much greater.

    • Word count: 1540
  14. Marked by a teacher

    Why was Russia such a backward country in the end of the 19th century?

    3 star(s)

    Even though there was greater access to lands, the peasants became more empoverished, especially in the black soil provinces of the south where the holdings of ex-serfs fell by about 25%. The empoverishment grew also from the loss of many customary rights to woodland and to common pasture. The virtual doubling of peasant population from 68 million in 1859 to 125 million in 1897 resulted in many people becoming landless and unemployed as they were not further instructed. The rural areas in Russia were not apt for a radical change in the social and economic structures as the State, ebing bankrupt, could not afford to train the peasants in new farming methods, thus not allowing industrialization to occur.

    • Word count: 1034
  15. Marked by a teacher

    Describe the global growth and geographical distribution of human population. Discuss the impacts that this growth has on both land and water resources?

    3 star(s)

    Such advancements have enabled crude mortality rates to decrease and life expectancy to increase in many parts of the developed world. Fig 1.0 United Nations predicted World Population related to main fertility Cycles 1950 - 2050 It is a crude fact that people are living longer and that there has never before been so many young people globally. It is also true that most of the worlds population growth is from developing countries. In the developed world the rapid growth in global population has been recognised and a need to manage it has arisen.

    • Word count: 1458
  16. Marked by a teacher

    Analyse the economic, environmental, social and demographic impacts of migration at both the origin and destination of migrants.

    3 star(s)

    As a result of this, agriculturally based work opportunities are declining as farms become even larger and more mechanised. Local housing becomes too expensive for local people and is bought by commuters. Demand for local services such as local shop and post office can cause them to close and people have to travel to urban areas making living in the country side more expensive. These effects work both ways however. The effect on those moving from rural to urban locations can be very beneficial.

    • Word count: 1853
  17. The conflict at Dale Farm in Crays Hill, Essex is predominantly over territory. There are factors of culture and ethnicity that could be included, as the conflict has progressed, but it originated over territory. The conflict originated between 19

    voted 28 to 10 to forcible evict 86 families from Dale Farm. The eviction was to take place from 19th September onwards. BBC withdrew from negotiations with the travellers and omitted to assisting to locate suitable alternative land. This is a conflict that is relatively complicated with court decisions changing from one day to the next, and has spread over such a long period of time. In 2007, the conflict even became the subject of the Judicial Renew Proceedings and was heard in 2008. The Travellers have used many arguments in an attempt to prevent the eviction from the site.

    • Word count: 1645
  18. Managing Population Growth. The History of Singapores Child Policy

    After the Second World War, the birth rate of Singapore increased, like in nearly other country. In the Second World War, Singapore was till 1942 British colony and the major military base of the United Kingdom in South East Asia. In 1942 the Japanese occupied Singapore in just seven days. England's Prime Minister Winston Churchill called the fall of the "Impregnable Fortress" the "worst disaster" and "largest capitulation" in British History. From 1942 to 1945 Singapore was occupied by the Japanese. During this time a lot of the Chinese and rich men were executed by the Japanese.

    • Word count: 1031
  19. Report on Spain and the tourist attractions of Murcia.

    203,000 Oviedo 199,000 M�stoles 196,000 Elche 191,000 Sabadell 186,000 Santander 183,000 J�rez de la Frontera 182,000 San Sebasti�n 177,000 Legan�s 175,000 Almer�a 170,000 Cartagena 170,000 Tarrasa 164,000 Alcal�de Henares 163,000 Fuenlabrada 163,000 Pamplona 163,000 Burgos 162,000 Salamanca 158,000 Albacete 146,000 Le�n 144,000 Getafe 143,000 Alcorc�n 141,000 C�diz 141,000 Huelva 140,000 Castell�n de la Plana 136,000 Badajoz 124,000 Logro�o 124,000 Santa Coloma de Gramanet 123,000 La Laguna 122,000 Lleida 111,000 Tarragona 111,000 (commons. (2010) [online image] available from: commons.wikimedia.org [accessed 18 July 29010])

    • Word count: 1720
  20. In this essay I am going to describe the reasons for and the problems caused by migration from Mexico to the U.S.A.

    Voluntary migration is when migrants move by choice, as a means of improving their quality of life. They are influenced by the push/pull phenomenon. Push factors force people to leave an area and pull factors attract people to a certain area. Internal migration is when population movements within a country e.g. rural to urban migration in Brazil. And lastly international migration is when population movements across national boundaries between countries e.g. Mexico into the U.S.A which is what I'm going to be discussing in my essay. The demographic causes of migration are that as people reach a certain stage in their life for example people move when they get a new job or when the gat married

    • Word count: 1585
  21. Research into UK Immigration from Eastern Europe.

    'The headlines are clear - the population is rising largely down to increased immigration - but the detail reveals a complex picture of people coming and going'. The graphs show the changes in net migration etc. This article is written by the BBC and gives a much more balanced argument; it does not focus on any particular benefits or drawbacks, but sticks to the figures and gives a picture of what's going on with migration flows. Distribution of eastern European migrants within UK Immigrants from outside the UK make up a large portion of the labour workforce.

    • Word count: 1076
  22. Dharavi Regeneration Essay

    show that more than 2million do not have access to a toilet and 6million go without clean drinking water in Mumbai as a whole). This may be a big factor to why there are poor sanitary conditions (which include poor sewage disposal) in the slums and are the reason for diseases. Amplified by severe weather conditions during the monsoons this causes problems for clean drinking water as this becomes scarce. Also, there have been illegal redirections of pipes so that water can be 'burrowed' for the use of residents.

    • Word count: 1245
  23. Inner city initiatives provide the only mechanism for improving cities. Discuss

    The most famous is named the LDDC or the London Docklands Development Corporation, which was first created in 1981. The main aims for urban development corporations, such as the LDDC, are to focus specifically on regenerating the land and the property of run down or decrepit areas. The LDDC in question had a large amount of budget and powers to grant planning permission, along with the ability to buy land. The typical traits of these kind of corporations are both 'market led' and interventionist, which erects new flagship projects. However, a criticism of these projects which is nicknamed 'trickle down'; as typically these kind of corporations will create a brand new project without any local community members getting involved - they assume that everything will just happen around it, while its better to 'plant the seed' i.e.

    • Word count: 1471
  24. People who live in cities experience the same problems irrespective of location. How far do you agree with this statement?

    Looking at areas such as Tower Hamlets is a highly deprived area/ borough in London - which leads the London boroughs with low rates of literacy, high unemployment; along with its recent job cuts of 500 people and housing deprivation. Along with this area like this step migration occurs regularly, which will mean that these suburbs will see an increase in ethnic minorities. This in short will cause a problem for the local schools, putting a greater amount of pressure on them to employ teachers that speak, polish for example.

    • Word count: 1671
  25. Free essay

    Is London a successful megacity?

    Shortly after there was a train line to ever part of London such as Fenchurch, King's Cross and Paddington station which are still running now. This enabled huge growth in London and the surrounding area due to better connection routes now available to the who capital. Railways weren't just built in the capital; they were popping up around the whole of Britain which had a massive impact upon the growth on London in terms of population and economy. This was because people from all over the UK were now able to travel to and from London with ease and enabled links to major ports, and other industries such as coal mining and farming.

    • Word count: 1104

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Referring to contemporary debates about development in East London, discuss the problems of assessing the success and failure of redevelopment through the use of available statistics.

    "Having studied these arguments, it is without a doubt extremely difficult to come to a standard, straightforward conclusion as to the success or the failure of regeneration in east London. The debates that arise over the actual need and appropriateness of some of the changes in the region that the LDDC once surveyed are still very much open, despite evidence to suggest great achievement in some sectors. Indeed, there are concerns about the paths that were followed in the hope of regeneration. The LDDC has now been disposed of, but issues may still be raised as to its equity and democratic responsibility."

  • Famine and hunger have human, not physical, causes. Discuss this.

    "To conclude, famine and hunger are not only cause by human problems, but they also have physical causes behind them. However, the problems in food production caused by physical factors have been magnified by human factors. Countries in Africa and Asia, namely LEDCs, are overwhelmed by the problems brought about by physical causes, as they do not have the money and technology to overcome these causes. However, human causes including social and economic problems have been no help in improving the situation, but have simply worsened it."

  • With Reference To Several Contrasting Cities, Discuss The Challenges And Solutions Of Managing The Urban Environment

    "In conclusion I would say both LEDC's and MEDC's have the same problems but some are on a larger scale than others for example LEDC's have a large housing problem compared to MEDC's. Most of the problems can be solved successful if the government is willing to put in the time, effort and money and the public is willing to co-operate."

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