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AS and A Level: Population & Settlement
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It encouraged the country to reduce the birth rate by the slogan 'wan-xi-shao' which called for later marriages, longer gaps between children and fewer children. However, this policy was not effective enough, and the population continued increasing and did not follow the pattern of the DTM (demographic transition model). This then led the government to introduce the one-child policy in 1979, which set strict limits on the number of children that a couple were allowed to have. In order to further enforce this policy; strong pressure was put on women to use contraceptives (e.g.
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International Migration. Many people now are internationally migrating (moving country to country). Mexico (the source country) is moving to the USA (the host country).
The lack of education has caused a literacy rate of 89%. In Mexico there are not different types of jobs which means people with a lack of education have not got jobs that can be suitable for the needs and for those who have got an education, there are not many jobs for them. The main work that takes place in Mexico is farming. The average salary for Mexico is $6000 per year. There are also many Earthquakes that take place in Mexico which kills many people and loses their homes and family.
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There are 17 Lorries/ vans travelling roughly every 45minutes, so it could mean that these roads are used more for shops to obtain their good through Lorries and vans. As the over graph shows, there is approximately the same number of cars (80 cars) that are travelling in Brighton from Croydon. The number of vehicles is all approximately the same apart from the bus as there is a slight increase of number of buses in Brighton road from Croydon. 1 bike was recorded from Brighton road to Croydon but two bikes are recorded in Brighton from Croydon, sixteen lorries &vans are registered but about the same amount went from Brighton road to Croydon.
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I will discuss the differences and inequalities of China as a nation in its physical, human and economical factors.
You would expect migration to have a part to play with Chinese residents looking for a better standard of living and quality of life but the Net Migration is 0 or 'neutral' because the majority of people that migrate, do it within the country meaning it is 'National' with the majority migrating from rural to urban in order to seek a living for the remaining families at home. Infant Mortality in China is 23 per 1000 which is fairly high, yet 19% of China's population are under the age of 15 and 8% of China's population are over the age
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203,000 Oviedo 199,000 M�stoles 196,000 Elche 191,000 Sabadell 186,000 Santander 183,000 J�rez de la Frontera 182,000 San Sebasti�n 177,000 Legan�s 175,000 Almer�a 170,000 Cartagena 170,000 Tarrasa 164,000 Alcal�de Henares 163,000 Fuenlabrada 163,000 Pamplona 163,000 Burgos 162,000 Salamanca 158,000 Albacete 146,000 Le�n 144,000 Getafe 143,000 Alcorc�n 141,000 C�diz 141,000 Huelva 140,000 Castell�n de la Plana 136,000 Badajoz 124,000 Logro�o 124,000 Santa Coloma de Gramanet 123,000 La Laguna 122,000 Lleida 111,000 Tarragona 111,000 (commons. (2010) [online image] available from: commons.wikimedia.org [accessed 18 July 29010])
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In this essay I am going to describe the reasons for and the problems caused by migration from Mexico to the U.S.A.
Voluntary migration is when migrants move by choice, as a means of improving their quality of life. They are influenced by the push/pull phenomenon. Push factors force people to leave an area and pull factors attract people to a certain area. Internal migration is when population movements within a country e.g. rural to urban migration in Brazil. And lastly international migration is when population movements across national boundaries between countries e.g. Mexico into the U.S.A which is what I'm going to be discussing in my essay. The demographic causes of migration are that as people reach a certain stage in their life for example people move when they get a new job or when the gat married
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The world is becoming smaller due to the advances in technology and transport. Many natural barriers divided the world before advances in transport were made,
Americans explored the Mediterranean and North Africa. In 1942 Columbus discovered a new world to the west whilst looking for a shorter trade route to the east. In 1519 it took Magellan 3 years to sail around the globe and prove was round. The elimination of the water and desert barriers made the world smaller, people could travel further but not very fast. The use of steam as power began in the late 1800's at the start of the industrial revolution.
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Changes to the UK population. Changes to the population age structure in the UK have been caused by social and economic factors. The social factors affecting the population age include healthcare, lifestyle, education and migration.
Globalisation has caused most manufacturing and dangerous jobs like mining to move overseas. There are now more people in the UK working in almost risk free office environment, this has again increased life expectancy. Sex education has now become compulsory to teach in British schools, this means that teenagers are more aware of the risk of underage sex and early pregnancy. In 1961 oral contraceptive pills became legal, this was followed by abortion becoming legal.
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Although not the vital factor when families relocate, people like to feel safe and have nice surroundings. Bournemouth has these; the city is approximately 21 miles away from the New Forest. The middle class families that choose towns such as Bournemouth like the fact that they are so close to beautiful pastures and cycle paths through the forests, as Cities such as London and Manchester do not offer such environmental diversity. Bournemouth is keen on keeping the building of new buildings as low as possible, encouraging developments to take place on unused brownfield sites to try and worsen the costal squeeze.
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The combined population of Jakarta, west, central, and east java totals more than 140 million representing approximately 60% of the country's total population. Even though the growth rate itself is not alarming, what concerns Indonesia is the anomalous distribution of the population biased towards Java, Madura and Bali. The rest of the other islands in the archipelago are so scarcely populated forcing the government to undertake structured transmigration efforts. 1 Age Distribution:- 5 Comparing the positions of age distribution pyramid between 2000 and 2010, we understand the following:- * Indonesia has got a young population with an average age of
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'The headlines are clear - the population is rising largely down to increased immigration - but the detail reveals a complex picture of people coming and going'. The graphs show the changes in net migration etc. This article is written by the BBC and gives a much more balanced argument; it does not focus on any particular benefits or drawbacks, but sticks to the figures and gives a picture of what's going on with migration flows. Distribution of eastern European migrants within UK Immigrants from outside the UK make up a large portion of the labour workforce.
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show that more than 2million do not have access to a toilet and 6million go without clean drinking water in Mumbai as a whole). This may be a big factor to why there are poor sanitary conditions (which include poor sewage disposal) in the slums and are the reason for diseases. Amplified by severe weather conditions during the monsoons this causes problems for clean drinking water as this becomes scarce. Also, there have been illegal redirections of pipes so that water can be 'burrowed' for the use of residents.
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However birth control is not always possible as it is against certain religions such as Roman Catholicism and Islam. It is also not made readily available, especially those in the developing countries, and it is these that have some of the most rapidly growing populations in the world. For example Africa has a rapidly growing population, but does not have the birth control to prevent this, and therefore women are having large families therefore pushing the birth rate to higher than 2.1 which means the population is more than replacing itself and in turn growing at a significant rate.
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People can still be unhappy with their lives even if they have everything they want, so this will lower the quality of life in that area. Bangladesh, Low-income group, Third World---China, Second World, lower-middle income group---Japan, First World, High-income. All these countries are from the continent Asia.
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The most famous is named the LDDC or the London Docklands Development Corporation, which was first created in 1981. The main aims for urban development corporations, such as the LDDC, are to focus specifically on regenerating the land and the property of run down or decrepit areas. The LDDC in question had a large amount of budget and powers to grant planning permission, along with the ability to buy land. The typical traits of these kind of corporations are both 'market led' and interventionist, which erects new flagship projects. However, a criticism of these projects which is nicknamed 'trickle down'; as typically these kind of corporations will create a brand new project without any local community members getting involved - they assume that everything will just happen around it, while its better to 'plant the seed' i.e.
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People who live in cities experience the same problems irrespective of location. How far do you agree with this statement?
Looking at areas such as Tower Hamlets is a highly deprived area/ borough in London - which leads the London boroughs with low rates of literacy, high unemployment; along with its recent job cuts of 500 people and housing deprivation. Along with this area like this step migration occurs regularly, which will mean that these suburbs will see an increase in ethnic minorities. This in short will cause a problem for the local schools, putting a greater amount of pressure on them to employ teachers that speak, polish for example.
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Shortly after there was a train line to ever part of London such as Fenchurch, King's Cross and Paddington station which are still running now. This enabled huge growth in London and the surrounding area due to better connection routes now available to the who capital. Railways weren't just built in the capital; they were popping up around the whole of Britain which had a massive impact upon the growth on London in terms of population and economy. This was because people from all over the UK were now able to travel to and from London with ease and enabled links to major ports, and other industries such as coal mining and farming.
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In discussing the differences between the migration of the internal Chinese migration compared to the international migration of the Poles to UK, I will look at a variety of push and pull factors.
The main reason for this migration is certainly an economic reason. There is nearly always work in cities such as Shanghai in areas such as building and working in factories. The jobs pay very badly and working conditions can be poor. The reason for leaving there children to work in this environment is in the aim of getting a better quality of life for them and their children. It is easily arguable that this is the main economic reason that not they themselves benefit from the migration but their children.
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The immediate social problem is that the city planners could not cope with the sheer number of migrants. As a result the city became crowded since the 1990s and is now extremely overcrowded. In particular, public transports are often desperately overcrowded. The problem is made worse as many workers live far away from their work place as they cannot afford proper houses near the city centre or simply because there aren't enough houses there. The crowdedness of the city has also created many environmental problems, such as low hygiene level and more diseases. Heavy traffic jams can cause major air and noise pollution to the surrounding.
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The problems that face the city authorities of Bombay are immense. There is a genuine struggle to keep up with making provision for the vast numbers of migrants moving to Bombay. The location of the city goes a long way to exacerbating the issues faced. Bombay was originally a collection of small fishing villages, which expanded to become an important port in the Arabian Sea, and was a major calling point for the traditional Dhows which plied the waters from Arabia, Somalia and Iran. As the city is located on a headland peninsular, this maritime orientated city thrived on the ease and convenience of the coastal access.
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In addition, the marriageable age for men was raised to 22, and for women to 20. This meant couples would bear a child later than it used to be. Couples who conformed were allowed free education for their child, priority housing and other benefits. On the other hand, those who did not were fined heavily. Unfortunately after the policy was introduced, infanticide occurred. From tradition, male decedents were always preferred as they carry their family names from generation to generation. As couples were only allowed one child, girls were quite often abandoned, or even killed so they could have another chance of getting a boy.
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This means that more Australians will be retiring from the labour force than joining in the future. Spatial Distribution Australian's population have mainly lived near the coast due to the harsh conditions of Australia's climate. In the 1980s, the number of people living close to the CBD had declined dramatically because of inner-city urban decay forcing people to head for a life in suburb areas. After the government initiated policies to renew the decaying cities, people returned. This trend is continuing today, with 64% of the population residing in the capital cities.
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Research on China's population. The name of article is Chinas days of one-child only may be ending which was written by Jane Macarthney. It was published in The Weekend Australia, March 20-21, 2010.
A doctor pointed out that some people in the country still want to have one child. The famers prefer to have two children in order to share the farmwork or other work. However, in town such as Shanghai, government encourages couples who are both sole children to have two children, only a fewer number of people prefer to have two children. After the experiment, author stressed that the notional imbalance birth rate between male and female is 118 male to 100 female, the ratio in Yicheng is 106 male to 100 female.
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Migrants help to reduce labor shortages and also attract international traders through their foreign knowledge and language skills. Secondly migrants will be usually willing to fill job vacancies that local people are unwilling to fill. These include jobs such as babysitting, cleaning and other activities. This is an advantage for the existing community. Migration benefits not only the migrants, but also the countries that receive them, and even the countries they have left. Migrants doing these jobs live a happy and free life in a country where they get equal opportunity and thereby secure a better future for themselves and their families.
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The aim was to reduce poverty and to improve overall quality of life for the people. Under the policy, each couple that lives in a city should only have one child. Penalties for having more children have included fines totalling ten years' wages, loss of employment and a denial of the second child's education and medical services. Also older people were employed to spy on younger generations to make sure they were going along with the rules of the One Child Policy, they were known as the "Granny Police".
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