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AS and A Level: Population & Settlement

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  1. " Discuss the history, geography and ecology of the rabbit invasion in Australia. Explain whether the complete eradication from Australiais feasible."

    Such as their breeding and dispersal patterns and from this weaknesses might become evident, which would then aide in the eradication of the rabbit. The Rabbit made its' first appearance is the Eocene in Asia and North America, arriving in Europe during the Miocene period. Two sub species from Southern France and Spain were identified O.cuniculus cuniculus and O.cunniculus buxteyi. The first named sub species from France was frequently released on islands as a food source for sailors that might become shipwrecked.

    • Word count: 1660
  2. Demographic trends in UK - Opportunities and threat.

    According to Andrew Harrop, (2004) Over 100 years there has been dramatic fall in death rate in U.K (www.ageconcern.org.uk). Implications of the above in economy as follows, 1. Patterns of demand changes for age groups which will have the implications for production of gods and service. 2. Pensioners do not work but the burden on those in work will increase to pay the support fro the service like health care via taxation. 3. Older people are less mobile than younger people. The ageing of the population is expected to result in substantial increase in the cost of maintaining health care and pension programs and that is a source of widespread concern.

    • Word count: 2293
  3. From a sociological perspective, what do the effects of demographic change have on the social structure of the community of Exeter?

    The South West has acquired an additional 10,000 residents of retirement age but at the same time has experienced a loss of 3,800 people of working age and a loss of 13,000 people under sixteen. Sociological factors to investigate when looking at the effects of demographic change on the community of Exeter Secondary data is quite important to use alongside the first hand research. For example census information and settlement maps would show how the area has changed over time.

    • Word count: 1716
  4. Rural development: Strategy for incorporating it into India's overall economic development agenda.

    and private companies (who have the resources and can efficiently utilize conditions) will not only help reduce this imbalance but will have a multiplier effect on the overall economy. Development of Industry sector will play an important role in such a scenario as it can provide a link between rural and urban development. This has been explored further. Also there is a need for development of non-agricultural sectors in a rural economy to hedge monsoon and other agricultural risks. Monetary measures may also have to be taken initially and it may lead to temporary problems like devaluation, inflation etc.

    • Word count: 2718
  5. An Overview of Immigration to Australia

    The most during these periods are 145,316 in 1989, while the number in 1999 was only 84,143. 2.1.2 Geographical overseas migration to Australia Appendix 2 shows overseas migration by states and territories from 1979 to 1999. The whole migration to Australia increased by 1.7 times in 1999 compared to that of 1979. In 1979, overseas migration to NSW was about 40%, Vic 25%, Qld 13%, SA 6%, WA 11%, Tas 1%, NT 1%, and ACT 3%. After 20 years in 1999, they changed to around 44.4%, 22.4%, 15.4%, 3.5%, 11.5%, 0.5%, 0.8%, and 1.5%. Migration to NSW, Qld, and WA increased about double in this period.

    • Word count: 4763
  6. Identify two journal articles based on empirical work that approach a subject in a contrasting manner. In each case consider the papers using the following list of questions then compare and contrast the two different approaches to the issue.

    Rural geography: rural gender identity and the performance of masculinity and femininity in the countryside Little J. Progress in Human Geography, Volume 26, Issue 5, (2002) Pages 665 -670 2. Rural geography: searching rural geographies Roche M. Progress in Human Geography, Volume 26, Issue 6, (2002) Pages 823 - 829 Rural geography: rural gender identity and the performance of masculinity and femininity in the countryside Little J. What were the main research questions? This article reviews the progress that has been made in the examination of rural gender identities and, in particular, in debates on the relationship between masculinity and the rural environment and community.

    • Word count: 1246
  7. Migration Towards Western Europe

    To understand the current status of migration in Western Europe, it is essential to understand the history of migration to Western Europe. Following the end of World War II, Western European countries had to welcome refugees from war-torn countries, displaced residents and returners from their overseas colonies. By the end of the nineteen fifties, part of the demand for labor in these countries were met by employees from Mediterranean countries like Italy, Spain, Portugal, former Yugoslavia, Morocco, Algeria, Tunusia and Turkey.

    • Word count: 1668
  8. Using examples discuss Cloke's (2003) statement that the idea of idyllic rurality has 'rendered invisible the seamier side of rural life'.

    all can be misrepresented in the minds of the mass of the population and how do we come to form these views? Representation and Identity These impressions are formed throughout our lives taking data from a huge variety of sources whether they are personal experiences, media imagery, fiction, music, art, advertising or any of the other sources that help to mould our ideas. This idea that we form includes factors such as a vision of the landscape, the economy, the society and its population.

    • Word count: 2462
  9. Why does the demographic transition concept continue to occupy a central position in the analysis of change in human populations?

    On a demographic transition model it displays both birth rates and death rates. The birth rate of a country is the number of live births per 1,000 population per year, and the death rate is the number of deaths per 1,000 population per year. There are 4 main stages to the demographic transition model: 1. High stationary 2. Early expanding 3. Late expanding 4. Low stationary In the High Stationary phase both birth rates and death rates are high. Many countries went through this stage prior or during the industrial revolution. Birth rates were high due to a number of contributing factors.

    • Word count: 1260
  10. Urbanization. This essay has looked at three principal consequences of the recent rapid urbanisation in the third world

    Let us look firstly at the problem of rural depopulation. The migration of people away from the land can result in a shortage of labour, particularly acute during harvest. This may not be a great problem in industrialized regions, where the capital required for mechanised farming methods is readily available, but in developing countries there tends to be no substitute for traditional farm labour (ibid). The result of this is that, without the necessary workforce, food production will often not meet demand, and, as a consequence, prices will rise.

    • Word count: 659
  11. Account for the Geographical Characteristics of the Southern Chesapeake colonies at the end of the eighteenth century.

    The population was growing fast and by 1820 the population of the United States had overtaken Britain. Due to the rapid explosion of the population, it was forced to distribute over a greater area of land. In the Southern colonies the population occupied almost all of the land east of the Appalachians, which included many fertile mountain valleys, ideal for growing crops and rearing animals (McIlwraith, T.F, et al, 2001). After about 1740 Maryland and Virginia experienced settlement change. The Piedomont and Great Valley regions filled with settlers that imitated the Northern colonies with a mixture of grain and livestock farming.

    • Word count: 1924
  12. To What Extent did the Gradual Abandonment of the Maoist Development Paradigm Between the years 1978 and 1988 Improve or Worsen the Lot of the Chinese Peasant?

    Mao, in the same vein as Stalin, felt that investment in capital goods and heavy industry was essential for the triumph of communism. For this reason he focussed the bulk of China's resources on heavy industry, most notably steel production. During the latter part of Mao's reign, capital investment ranged between 22.7% of net domestic material product, and 30%.1 Interestingly, the figures are similar at the moment. These figures lead on perfectly to the next factor of the Maoist paradigm, the importance of investment.

    • Word count: 5275
  13. How should we nowadays understand the Anglo-Saxon 'Invasions' of lowland Britain?

    I shall firstly examine the evidence that suggests significant continuities between the sub-Roman period and time of the emergence of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms: these continuities imply that a substantial British population survived, casting doubt upon the theses of Stenton and Myres. Secondly, we must consider those areas where there were discontinuities; generally, I shall not deny these discontinuities, but will suggest that they are not necessarily inconsistent with British survival. Related to this is the question of how these fundamental changes, especially in language and material culture, were brought about.

    • Word count: 3846
  14. Why was Malthus wrong about Japan?

    It is this period that is of fascination to many demographers as during this time Japan experienced stagnation in its population but it also seemed to be the onset of its economic success. From the early 18th century to the Meiji restoration in 1868 Japan's population stayed at around 33 million. It is this 150-year period of stagnation that is of interest to studiers of the demographic history of Japan. There is also much discussion as to whether the population as it was, was inextricably linked to economic growth or vice versa.

    • Word count: 3167
  15. Labor Migration - Politics and Governance

    In the United States, hard work is rewarded. In the Philippines, it is part of the struggle to survive" (Takaki, 1995). Unemployment in the country has also been a major problem. Job openings have been scarce in relation to the number of those seeking employment. A major cause of this phenomenon is the low investment of firms in the nation. Businessmen have been reluctant due to the lack of stability of the economy and political governance. Going back in history, monetary benefits and the promise of a better life are the same considerations that prompted the departure of yesterday's Filipino workers.

    • Word count: 3427
  16. Urban life in Hong Kong and Tibet.

    The white cloth tents are not as common and are good for traveling. They are quite small and are usually covered in religious symbols like the one overleaf. Inside both types of tents there aren't any bed just cushions and rugs. The tents are divided into two halves. One half for the woman and the other half for men. In the men's half there is usually a worshipping place with statues, scriptures etc. of the Buddha. In Hong Kong on the other hand everybody lives in tall apartment buildings of about 40 storeys because of very limited land space and the government have now started filling in the harbour.

    • Word count: 1168
  17. Explain why the highest rates of urbanization in the world today are in LEDCs.

    buses and trains are much better funded and therefore easier to use and afford than those in an LEDC which are limited to the city limits, although are still inadequate. Rural to Urban migration is a major factor in urbanization of LEDC cities, as rural dwellers come to the towns and cities in hope of a better quality of life, and employment. In Lima, Peru, many people are attracted to the city by the prospects of getting a job, as 70% of the multinational companies put large amounts of investment in Lima.

    • Word count: 1004
  18. Explain why road congestion is a negative externality.

    In urban regions such as London, 53% of air pollution emanates from automobile traffic. Pollutants can cause respiratory troubles and aggravate cardiovascular illnesses. Noise can be a nuisance to human health and welfare. Nose can be manifested in three levels depending on emissions intensity; psychological disturbances (displeasure and annoyance), functional disturbances (loss of sleep, speech interference) or physiological disturbances (serious health issues such as hearing damage.) Congestion can create much noise pollution due to constant gear changes and frequent impatient horns that contribute to the problem. Water quality is also affected and is a big negative externality.

    • Word count: 1067
  19. World Development

    and very poor (e.g. Mali) countries. 1st, 2nd, and 3rd world countries are also referred as MEDC'S and LEDC'S. More economically developed countries are referred to as mainly the 1st and some of the 2nd world countries; Less Economically Developed Countries can be referred as the low standards and behind countries such as some of 2nd world and 3rd world countries. These two categories are split, dividing different countries in order of wealth, social and political justice. The MEDC'S are far more better off and have higher living standards than those countries of LEDC'S which are trapped in poverty and are under developed due to lack of basic necessities.

    • Word count: 3701
  20. Explain why the pressure for development on rural land on the edge of cities remains great in both MEDCs and LEDCs.

    This change since the 1970s is largely due to the preference of people to have a house on the edge of the countryside where more and cheaper land allowed gardens, lower density housing and greater open places with safer places for children to be brought up. This pressure for houses on the rural-urban fringe has also been made by the increase in fast transport since the 1960s including fast 225 Inter City trains, and the general improvement of bus services, train services and there cost reductions.

    • Word count: 1354
  21. Why is there uncertainty among historians when accounting for the expansion in population in the period 1775 - 1900?

    This means that it is difficult to create accurate population figures from before this time. In 1837, civil registration produced more reliable data regarding births and deaths, however when looking back any further than this, statistics regarding birth and death rates, are generally taken from parish registers. These, however would only show baptisms and burials, this clearly would cause complications as if one was not buried or baptised then they would have no record within the parish. This also relies on the paperwork of the baptism/burial being completed and therefore recorded at all. It could be argued that the reason for the rising population was that immigration into the country could be partly to blame,

    • Word count: 1697
  22. The Demographic Transition Model or Population Cycle

    Reasons for a high birth rate are: 1. Economic - many children mean more workers in the field. 2. Social - No birth control or family planning. Couples have large families in the hope that a few will survive childhood. More children to support the parents in old age. Children are regarded as a sign of virility in some cultures. 3. Political - Governments in Muslim and Catholic countries encourage large families and do not provide much education about family planning.

    • Word count: 846
  23. Are the ideas of Thomas Malthus relevant to the early twenty-first century?

    This law states that if one factor of production is increased while the others remain constant, the overall returns will relatively decrease after a certain point. Malthus also stated that the 'laws of nature' dictate that a population can never increase beyond the food supplies necessary to support it. Thomas Malthus has strict religious views. He believed that population growth was controlled by 'checks', these being methods to prevent numbers of people increasing beyond the optimum population. Malthus saw these checks as nature's way of dealing with over-population.

    • Word count: 942
  24. Assess the success of different methods used to overcome the imbalance between population and food supply

    He also believed that human population increases geometrically whereas food supplies can only grow arithmetically. A Danish economist put the optimistic theory together in 1965 her name was Esther Boserup. She believed that an increase in population would stimulate technologists to increase food production. The sentence "Necessity is the mother of invention" sums up the Boserup theory. Agricultural Responses The green revolution is a worldwide agricultural movement but it all started in Mexico in 1944 and it involved the simultaneous development of 2 things; these include: > New varieties of food plants. > Altered agricultural practises that greatly increase crop yields.

    • Word count: 591
  25. Are the redevelopment in UK after post war world shifted to on era of urban disorder and uncertainty?

    This has been shift to an era of unstable, unreliable and anti-social behavior (collapse in trust in expert) knowledge systems. Uncertainty about who we are? Uncertainty need to be expert in reading fleeting signs and roles...etc. City dwellers construct their own sense of space, maps of the city. The city is tension between proximity and distance, intimacy and alienation. Distinction between hard cities: material structures, physical infrastructure and the soft city. The soft city is central to individual identity formation, also it hard, the threat of fragmentation neurosis and alienation. Junathan Raban argue the city as we imagine it's the soft city of illusion, myth, aspiration, night mare is as real, maybe more real, than the hard city one can locate on maps is statistic, in monographs on urban society and demography and architecture.

    • Word count: 2572

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