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Impacts of Tourism: Planning and Policy Development - Critically assess the key arguements regarding the outcomes of tourism in less developed societies.

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Introduction

IMPACTS OF TOURISM: PLANNING AND POLICY DEVELOPMENT CRITICALLY ASSESS THE KEY ARGUMENTS REGARDING THE OUTCOMES OF TOURISM IN LESS DEVELOPED SOCIETIES. One does not have to look at literature too see that the impacts of tourism has been immense in the world we live in. Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries, according to WTO (World Tourism Organization) revised estimates total international tourist arrivals worldwide come to almost 595 million in 1996. International tourism receipts for 1996 are estimated to be $425 billion (WTO, 1997). An article in the Hutchinson Educational Encyclopaedia (1999) has pointed out that tourism is worlds largest industry. It sustained 120 million jobs in 1995 accounting for 7% of the global workforce (Hutchinson, 1999). As the figures show Tourism has a major impact on the world economy. One has to realise that along with benefits tourism does also bring many detrimental affects on both the developing and developed countries. For this essay one will predominantly look at the impacts of tourism in the world we live in. One will also be looking at issues surrounding development of tourism in the world and why the public and private sectors are concerned with developing tourism. ...read more.

Middle

In 1992 it is estimated that 100 million visitors went to the Mediterranean coastline, the major problem from this mass tourism was water pollution and erosion (Burns et al, 1995). This is not an isolated case other tourist destinations have also been affected example being the deforestation of the alpine areas in the Himalayas (Croal. J, 1995). Directly or indirectly tourism is a fabric part of the worlds industries including retailing, advertising, transportation, food industry amongst others. Communication from one side of the planet to the other are very easy now thanks to advancement in technology, 'greater knowledge of the world and the perception that it has shrunk thanks to television, the internet and high speed transportation links' (Brown, 1998:18). This idea that the world is shrinking is known as globalisation. Some academics such as Plog are concerned with this globalisation process, they see it as a negative aspect of tourism. The worry of Plog is further reinforced by Brown (1998), he has hinted that globalisation process could result in cultural homogenisation or a large amount of pressure to retain cultural identity. ...read more.

Conclusion

infrastructure rather than the growth of tourism, that has been the key element in bringing about modernisation and social change (Sharpley, 1994:197). As we have seen, some academics have pointed out the detrimental effects of tourism such as crime in tourist areas. However, Pizam et al (1995) have found that tourism had a negligible effect on crime. They mentioned that tourism is a potential determinant of crime, negatively affecting the quality of the environment. One could say that the tourism development cannot be held responsible for occurrence of crime, ultimately it is the criminals who target tourists and local businesses. In conclusion I believe that one needs to understand the impacts that tourism has had on the world we live in. Many academics have mentioned the problems of development of tourism, others have showed the benefits it brings. From the discussion above one can make up their own mind and say that tourism is an essential part of life, whether it's good or bad it's open to debate. It is the worlds single largest industry and it affects every one of us, and it is safe to assume it will affect us for the rest of our lives wherever we live. ...read more.

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