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Impacts of urbanisation in Mumbai

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Discuss the environmental, social and economic consequences of urbanisation on a named country. Urbanisation is the growth in proportion of a country's population that lives in urban as opposed to rural areas. Although urbanisation can bring many benefits to a city, rapid urbanisation often causes more problems than benefits for the city. In this essay I will discuss the environmental, social and economic consequences of rapid urbanisation in Mumbai, India. Mumbai is the largest city in India, with a population of 14 350 000 people. Like many major cities in the developing world, Mumbai faces numerous problems; in particular, the city cannot keep up with the rapid urbanisation. As the city began to expand, migrants from rural areas around the country migrate into the city. These immigrants are ranging from uneducated workers to skilled workers. The immediate social problem is that the city planners could not cope with the sheer number of migrants. ...read more.


There are also lack of other infrastructures such as education, health care, water supply and sewage systems. Mumbai's location itself imposes many problems for development. The city is on a peninsula surrounded by sea and there is little land for expansion. With the already scarce available land filled up, immigrants often have to reside in poor conditioned shanty towns, often built on dangerous terrains such as near railway tracks or swamps (i.e Dharavi). Most of the slums are located in Dharavi, a former marshland located in northern Mumbai which had dried up as the settlers moved in. It is home to over 600 000 people. With such a large population in such a small area, coupled with flooding during monsoon seasons, it is not surprising that there are major health issues here. There is also a toilet shortage; with only one toilet per 1 440 residents. ...read more.


But to develop the area it is essential to raze all the slums in Dharavi. There are currently major conflicts between developers and local residents, who are not willing to move. Furthermore, relocating a population of 600 000 people in a short period time is almost impossible. The government is hoping to find a compromise between accommodating the residents and converting Dharavi into a "world class cultural, knowledge, business and health centre. Despite promises of new accommodations, many residents are unwilling to agree to the redevelopment project. The project cannot go ahead unless a majority of the registered residents agree to it, but many residents of Dharavi are unregistered - their views on the matter will simply be ignored. Moreover, some community leaders claim that the government and developers have used underhanded tactics such as bribery to try to get people to sign agreements. If development is to proceed, financial pressure cause developers to change the planned housing into more valuable developments of commercial and office premises for the growing business area. ...read more.

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