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Improvements made to arable farming in the latter half of the 18th century were the new crops and new rotations and the new methods of improving the land. Charles Townshend introduced a new crop rotation called the Norfolk four-course rotation

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Introduction

Describe the main improvements made to arable and pastoral farming during the latter half of the 18th century. Improvements made to arable farming in the latter half of the 18th century were the new crops and new rotations and the new methods of improving the land. Charles Townshend introduced a new crop rotation called the Norfolk four-course rotation, which increased the amount of cropland as land did not lie fallow, the fertility was put back into the soil using various crops and the sheep which fed on the crops trod their own manure into the soil to fertilize it. This rotation would consist of wheat the 1st year, turnips the 2nd year, barley the 3rd year and clover or lucerne the 4th year. ...read more.

Middle

Lime and chalk were a good way to add minerals to the soil and water meadows which was used to make the grass grow early and to enrich the soil. Many improvements were made to machines to assist the farmers in their work. Robert Ransome invented the Rotherham plough in 1760 which was made of iron and could be pulled by horses. He also invented the harrow which was originally made of wood and used to rake and break up the lumps in the soil, this was later replaced by iron. Jethro Tull invented the seed drill which was used in 1788 by the help of Rev. James Cooke, it was an improvement because the farmers didn't have to sow the seeds by hand, Jethro Tull also invented the horse hoe which was fixed onto a frame and drawn along by a horse, uprooting the weeds. ...read more.

Conclusion

Bakewell also had an idea to improve a cow with a larger rear for beef but the meat became fatty and there wasn't much milk, this was called the longhorn cattle. He also bred shire horses in the 1780's. The Durham shorthorn cattle which was introduced by the Colling brothers was good for beef and milk. John Ellman improved the New Leicester sheep by making ones which were good for wool and mutton called the Southdown sheep. All of these improvements wouldn't have been possible if the land hadn't been enclosed first. This enabled the farmers to experiment with crops and new rotations and do their own selective breeding as they didn't have to do what they were told and the animals didn't mix. Thomas Coke also invented the use of long leases for tenants which meant more money. ?? ?? ?? ?? Charlotte Palmer ...read more.

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