• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

In the 1950's it became apparent that there was a mixture of smoke and fog in the air which used to generally hang around industrial areas, this was called 'smog'.

Extracts from this document...


Open Book Chemistry Paper In the 1950's it became apparent that there was a mixture of smoke and fog in the air which used to generally hang around industrial areas, this was called 'smog'. This smog consisted of sticky soot and tar particles which had the chemical properties of sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid. Todays 'smog' is much different to that of the 1950's as it mostly happens in the summer compared to the winter. They now call it photochemical smog which are less visible and are highly oxidising. This photochemical smog has primary pollutants and secondary pollutants. Primary pollutants (oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds created from fossil fuel combustion) interact under the influence of sunlight to produce a mixture of hundreds of different and hazardous chemicals known as secondary pollutants. A good example of primary pollutants is the combustion of fuels in cars and power stations. Secondary pollutants are the result of when primary pollutants carry on reacting. ...read more.


Early morning traffic increases the emissions of both nitrogen oxides and VOCs as people drive to work. Later in the morning, traffic dies down and the nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds begin to be react forming nitrogen dioxide, increasing its concentration. As the sunlight becomes more intense later in the day, nitrogen dioxide is broken down and its by-products form increasing concentrations of ozone. As the sun goes down, the production of ozone is halted. The ozone that remains in the atmosphere is then consumed by several different reactions. 3. Several meteorological factors can influence the formation of photochemical smog. These conditions include: * Precipitation can alleviate photochemical smog as the pollutants are washed out of the atmosphere with the rainfall. * Winds can blow photochemical smog away replacing it with fresh air. However, problems may arise in distant areas that receive the pollution. * Temperature inversions can enhance the severity of a photochemical smog episode. ...read more.


The advantages of this power station using this method though is that the station is positioned of the Firth of Forth bank where it would have unlimited sea water. This process is done when the gases are passed through sea water (pH 7.5).The sulphur dioxide starts to dissolve in the sea water to become sulphite ions. This sulphite to become less harmful to the environment to which it will be released will have to be aerated. As a result of Longannet power station using this method it has become one of the cleanest stations in the UK. The part played by chemists in the research on photochemical smog was and is great. If this research wasn't done there wouldn't have been any action taken. This increasing awareness of our human activities has now led to national importance and has then led onto world summits on this topic. Sources I have used: Books: Salters Advanced Chemistry Understanding Chemistry for Advanced Level Ted Lister, Janet Renshaw A level Chemistry. E.N.Ramsden; Stanley Thornes Website (For the diagrams): http://www.mtsu.edu/~nchong/Smog-Atm1.htm Iain Grieve ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Environmental Management section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Environmental Management essays

  1. Smog. Photochemical smog poses easily the biggest threat to clean air in Australia and ...

    VOCs (e.g. benzene, formaldehyde, chlorinated hydrocarbons etc) are produced from evaporation of petrol, solvents, oil based paints, hydrocarbons from the petrochemical industry, and motor vehicle emissions. Vehicles emit 52 percent of the VOCs present in the Queensland airspace. Interestingly, recent CSIRO research found that plants release highly reactive carbons that can add significantly to photochemical smog problems.

  2. The Ozone a Hole in the TheoryThe protective ozone layer around our world undergoes ...

    Factors such as temperature, air currents, and surface pressure(Lutgens, Tarback-185-186, 189-190). Along with not mentioning the fact that all ozone activity occurs naturally, environmental scientists and the media have also failed to mention a few facts that eliminate most if not all fear of ozone depletion.

  1. PLANNING PERMISSION/POLICY:: Briggs & Mortar have commissioned Spencer Property to carry out a local ...

    Also, consider how drainage systems will be affected during construction. Hydrology * Minimize erosion. Locate and design facilities to minimize erosion and impacts on natural hydrological systems. * Avoid hydrological system contamination. Safeguard the hydrological system from contamination by construction activities and building operation.

  2. Photochemical smog.

    absorbs energy from the sunlight: hv NO2 NO + O The ozone formed in the reaction is however, used up by Nitrogen oxide to form nitrogen dioxide, this is ozone depletion: (202) O3 + NO O2 + NO2 The rate in which ozone is produced is balanced by the rate

  1. Smog is a kind of air pollution and is caused by a mixture of ...

    The Great London Smog of 1952 caused 4000 deaths and persuaded the Government to clean up Britain's air. Photochemical or summer smog * First found in the 1950s * It is the chemical reaction of sunlight, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC's)

  2. Ozone (O3) is an allotropic form of oxygen with three atoms in each molecule. ...

    in 1992, the aim was changed to fully terminate the production of halons by 1994 and CFCs by 1996 due to new reports of excessive damage to the ozone layer. As a result, the ozone layer began to heal and it is estimated that within 50 years, the ozone layer will be completely restored (Allaby 1986, U.S.

  1. Emerging Chemical Contaminants: The Case of Perfluorochemicals

    If oxidative degradation of FTOHs occurs in the atmosphere, the resulting perfluorocarboxylates would most certainly deposit to aquatic and terrestrial surfaces as they are water soluble with a lower vapour pressure(Simik 2005; Ellis et al. 2004). In addition, biodegradation of FTOH has been shown to be a source of pefluorocarboxylates.

  2. Reclamation of Naturally Inaccessible Areas

    Reclamation of wetlands has been less actively pursued in the United States, because such areas are highly productive habitats for fish, shellfish, birds, and wildlife. Reclamation of arid lands, however, has been a major goal of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work