• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Kanto Earthquake, Tokyo, 1923 Causes and Effects

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

4.10.01 Kanto Earthquake, Tokyo, 1923 Causes and Effects: Japan is situated on the Continental Eurasian Plate. Both the Philippines and Pacific Oceanic Plates are constantly being subducted under the Eurasian Plate creating a Destructive Plate Margin. This area is part of the Pacific 'Ring of Fire' which is renown for its earthquake and volcanic activity. Previous to the Kanto earthquake of 1923 Tokyo had not been hit since 1853. In some areas this may have caused the population to become complacent about safety issues, but as Japan is in such a tectonically unstable area they are in a constant state of readiness. The Kanto earthquake measured 8.2 on the Richter Scale. Its epicentre was situated in the Sagami Bay, 80km south of Tokyo. However, it took only 44 seconds for the first shockwaves to hit Tokyo. In total the earthquake measured as the most disastrous in Japanese history. The total dead amounted to around 140'000, 100'000 in Tokyo and 40'000 in nearby Yokohama. ...read more.

Middle

This all resulted in a total of 700'000 homes, 9000 factories and roughly 66% of the city being burnt to the ground. Responses: Almost straight after the earthquake damage had been repaired the government set about plans to educate the population about earthquakes and so hopefully save many lives if one were to happen again. o September 1st was designated 'Disaster Day, with the whole city practicing drills and simulated earthquakes. o Schools were made to practice drills regularly in order to educate the young of the city how to best survive. o People were advised to switch off ovens and stoves so as not to repeat the terrible explosions caused last time thought gas explosions. They were also told not to store things on high shelves, as falling objects are one of the largest killers during an earthquake. The Japanese realised from past experience and from studying other large earthquakes that the main impact was not the greatest killer, but the aftermath, and so they set up the following in an attempt to save many lives after the next earthquake strikes: o Emergency water tanks and generators were installed in each district incase of power loss or water contamination. ...read more.

Conclusion

o Extra walls were also introduced both inside and out to improve strength and flexibility of buildings. During the Kanto earthquake of 1923, 66% of the city was burnt to the ground. Fire was the main destructive force of the whole earthquake. For this reason when Tokyo was rebuilt wooden building materials were avoided and open spaces were created to act as firebreaks, preventing the fire spreading any further. Fireproof buildings such as the Shirahige-Higashi apartment were also constructed for similar effect. 543 hectares of housing were strengthened and fireproofed and further areas were demolished to again act as firebreaks within the city. One of the main reasons for the huge death toll in the Kanto earthquake was because the population were taken thoroughly by surprise. Measures were taken to improve earthquake prediction in the meetings that followed the disaster. Instruments were installed to measure the Earth's movements. The next earthquake being predicted for 2020. City authorities also promised that next time, the public will be given at least a few hours in order to prepare themselves for the initial impact. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hazardous Environments section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hazardous Environments essays

  1. Mount St. Helens - Natural disasters.

    Tiltmeters on the north and east flanks show swelling and subsidence over minutes to hours, but the net changes are inconclusive. Washington State Department of Transportation posted signs for four safe viewpoints along Interstate 5. They were located near exit 14 (Ridgefield Junction), exit 63 south of Toledo, exit 76 south of Chehalis, and the Yale boat launch.

  2. Antartica: The Last Wilderness

    really needs to be more data for statistical significance, many other factors may affect the temperatures recorded including the Southern Annular Mode (Thompson and Solomon, 2004), which has caused stronger winds in the last few years, which stop warmer air reaching Antarctica.

  1. b) What are i) the prime causes of and ii) the most effective remedies for ...

    The lack of vegetation also means that there is more evaporation due to reduced shade which draws the minerals and salts to the surface, increasing salinity and hence making it harder for plants to recover and grow there unless they are adapted to handle high levels of salt.

  2. Tsunami - 26/12/04 - Causes, impact, and management

    The movement has been going on for a thousand years, one plate pushing against the other until something has to give. The result of this build up of pressure happened on December 26 was a rupture in the earths crust which was estimated more than 600 miles (1,000 kilometres)

  1. A Report Of The Investigation into Health and Safety In The Workplace.

    The employees have to take extreme car when handling this chemical. Hydrofluoric Acid is a possible mutagen if it come into contact with skin. A mutagen is a chemical which has the ability to change DNA meaning that this chemical needs to also be handled with extreme care.

  2. The first will be about Health and Safety at Graham School. The second will ...

    These precautions are all in place to stop injuries happening and to prevent the hazards above. In the foyer outside my lab room there is an fire exit to allow quick and easy access if there happens to be a fire in the lab room and also a fire alarm,

  1. The origin of the Earth

    The force needed to move billions of tones of rock is unimaginable. When plates move some of the energy is released as earthquakes. The Rock Cycle The upper part of the earth (mantle, crust and surface) can be envisioned as a giant recycling machine; matter that makes up rocks is

  2. What are the variations in the effects and responses to volcanic activity between LEDCs ...

    As a result of the eruption, the mountain's elevation was decreased from 2,950 m (9,677 ft) to 2,549 m (8,364 ft). Forest Interpreters often talk about the five main phases of the eruption. The earthquake triggered the first phase, which jarred loose the bulging north flank of the mountain.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work