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Legislations that aids to reduce air pollution in Britain.

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Introduction

Task 5 Mr Grandidge Helen Thomas Legislations that aids to reduce air pollution in Britain Legislation One of the earliest records of air pollution control was in 1306 when a royal proclamation banned the burning of coal in London. But until the 1950s, pollution was generally accepted as the price of progress. The atmosphere of Britain's urban areas was characterised by large quantities of smoke and sulphur fumes from stacks and chimneys, which resulted in a lack of winter sunshine, pea-soup fogs, blackened buildings and black snow. No real action was taken until the infamous London smog of December 1952, which lasted for five days and was responsible for more than 4,000 premature deaths. This took the form of the Clean Air Act 1956, which was later amended and extended by the Clean Air Act 1968. In 1961, the National Survey of Air Pollution was set up to monitor concentrations of smoke and sulphur dioxide. Measurements were made at about 1,200 urban and rural sites throughout the UK by local authorities and other bodies. In 1982, the UK Smoke and Sulphur Dioxide Monitoring Network comprising approximately 200 sites replaced the National Survey. A combination of national and international legislation addresses the problem of air quality. The Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland provides a framework for air quality control with standards and objectives for certain pollutants and a timetable for their achievement (Follow link at right to Air quality standards). ...read more.

Middle

In terms of global obligations, the Ozone Layer Protection Ordinance is regularly updated to keep up with amendments to the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer. Air Pollution Control Related Legislation in Effect as at December 2000 Legislation Description of Control Air Pollution Control Ordinance (Cap. 311) 1983 Provides for the control of air pollution from stationary sources and motor vehicles. Also enables promulgation of regulations Air Pollution Control (Air Control Zones) (Declaration) (Consolidation) Order 1993 Provides for consolidated declaration of Air Control Zones. Air Pollution Control (Appeal Board) Regulations 1983 Stipulates the procedures and run down of an appeal. Air Pollution Control (Asbestos) (Administration) Regulation 1996 Provides for the qualifications and Fees for registration of asbestos consultants, Contractors, supervisors and laboratories. Air Pollution Control (Construction Dust) Regulation 1997 Requires contractors to take dust reduction measures when construction work is being carried out. Air Pollution Control (Dust and Grit Emission) Regulations 1974 Stipulates the emission standards, assessment procedures and requirements for particulate emissions from stationary combustion sources. Air Pollution Control (Fuel Restriction) Regulations 1990 Prohibits the use of high sulphur content solid and liquid fuel for commercial and industrial appliances. (In Shatin, only gaseous fuel is allowed except for the appliances used in construction sites or for emergency purposes.) Air Pollution Control (Furnaces, Oven and Chimneys) (Installation and Alteration) Regulation 1972 Requires prior approval to ensure suitable design for the installation nd alteration of furnaces, ovens and chimneys. Air Polution Control (Motor Vehicle Fuel) ...read more.

Conclusion

Draft regulation endorsed by the Advisory Council On the Environment and to become effective in 2001. Amendment of Air Pollution Control (Vehicle Design Standards) (Emission) Regulations New taxis will be required to use LPG and new vehicles over 3.5 tonnes will be required to Meet Euro III emission standards. Drafting of regulation in Progress and to become effective in 2001. Congestion charge Another measure that the government has taken to reduce air pollution in the capital is to introduce the congestion charge congestion charge gives money to the government and also reduce the amount of car fumes that will be released into the atmosphere. Congestion charging is a way of ensuring that those using valuable and congested road space make a financial contribution. It encourages the use of other modes of transport and is also intended to ensure that, for those who have to use the roads, journey times are quicker and more reliable. The London scheme requires drivers to pay �5 per day if they wish to continue driving in central London during the scheme's hours of operation. If it is not necessary to make your journey by car you might want to consider alternative forms of transport. * London suffers the worst traffic congestion in the UK and amongst the worst in Europe. * Drivers in central London spend 50% of their time in queues * Every weekday morning, the equivalent of 25 busy motorway lanes of traffic tries to enter central London. * It has been estimated that London loses between �2-4 million every week in terms of lost time caused by congestion. ...read more.

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