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Migration: Russia

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Introduction

Migration: Russia Since the liberalisation of Russia from the control of the Soviet Union there have been several new trends in the form of major migration streams. The first of these is the migration of some of the countries brightest and most skilled workers travelling to the west. The second is and influx of Russian speakers, ethnic Russians and other from the former Soviet Union. And the next is the depopulation of Siberia and the Far East. There are several reasons for these migration trends. A push factor affecting the migration into Russia is ethnic violence and regional conflict. This violence has a negative affect on a countries economics and has caused economic declines. There is always a risk of injury and loss in times of war, this push people towards migration. Armenians and Georgians moved in significant numbers due to violence during the post-Soviet period in their countries. Large numbers of people entered Russia as "forced migrants." This term refers to people who moved to Russia not out of choice but by necessity, and have been given citizenship, migrants without citizenship a labelled as refugees. ...read more.

Middle

This included many Russians and so there was a large amount of Russians migrating into Russia. There has been a total net migration into Russia from the surrounding states of about 3.7 million. There was a large flow of migrants entering Russia after the break up of the Soviet Union; the rate has dropped gradually since then, before falling to just 124,000 in 2001, as the effect of the break up has almost exhausted itself. Another factor pulling people into Russia is the wealth of the country, as only Estonia has a higher gross national income per capita than Russia out of all of the former Soviet Union states. Most of the Central Asian states, as well as Ukraine and Moldova, have incomes less that half of those in Russia. There are many undocumented migrants in Russia, it is estimated that there are 3.0 to 3.5 million, even estimates of up to six million illegal migrants in Russia. The main sources of these undocumented migrants are China, Vietnam, Korea, and other Asian countries and Africa. One reason so many might travel to Russia is that they see it as a way to get to Europe, many of these people are considered to be illegal immigrants as they are denied refugee status. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is due to large death at birth; the excess of deaths over births has been 7.7 million. Net immigration to the country of 3.6 million and has compensated for less than half of the natural decrease. In each of the last three years, the decrease of the population has been over 900,000. Although believe that the population in Russia is falling, some now believe, taking into consideration the highest estimates on migration into Russia, that the population may be rising. On top of this there are the unknown, illegal migrants and so the apparent crisis in Russia may not be as bad as previously thought due to immigrants. There has not been much emigration out of Russia, but the effect of those that have left has been large, as they tend to be the well-educated members, leaving towards the west in countries such as Germany for the better opportunities for their skill level, as well as German in Russia leaving due to a large resettlement package offered to Germans born abroad. Total migration from Russia to countries beyond the Former Soviet Union since 1989 has been 1.1 million, three destination countries account for the bulk of the people migrating from Russia -- Germany (57 percent), Israel (26 percent), and the United States (11 percent). ...read more.

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