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Outline and evaluate the effectiveness of strategies used to manage the impact of geomorphological processes on human activity in your chosen geomorphic environment

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Introduction

Outline and evaluate the effectiveness of strategies used to manage the impact of geomorphological processes on human activity in your chosen geomorphic environment. There is a wide range of management strategies that deal with coastal processes on coastlines. Many of these strategies however, are expensive but are not always successful, such as hard engineering. Other strategies, such as soft engineering, require a deeper understanding of geomorphological areas but can bring bigger benefits for lower costs. Different countries all over the world use different engineering strategies to protect their coastlines. Erosion is one of the main processes that affects coastlines and is the process that is desperately trying to be stopped by the use of several management strategies. For example, Bournemouth beach was nearly disappeared in the 1960s as a result of erosion. Now, wooden barriers known as groynes were placed along the beach to prevent long shore drift from taking the sand from the beach elsewhere, trapping sediment. In total, 26 groynes were placed alongside a 15km stretch. ...read more.

Middle

However, these strategies have caused a knock on effect further down the coast at Barton-on-Sea as long shore drift is stopped due to the groynes, leaving the beaches starved and no longer provide protection for the cliff face. The clay at the cliff foot is impermeable; causing increased mass and makes it liquefied, leading to collapse. However, the gravel at the top of the cliff is permeable and is easily eroded due to subaerial erosion. This is an example of where management did not work. Large amounts of hard engineering was added to Barton-on-Sea, including rock groynes and armour revetments, barriers of interlocking sheet piles and cliffs were revegetated. Not only were these strategies unsuccessful, but they caused substantial damage to the environment as well. They had tried to manage the foot of the cliff, whereas it should have been the top of the cliff that was protected from subaerial erosion. Barton-on-Sea continues to blame the management strategies at Bournemouth for their high rates of erosion. ...read more.

Conclusion

The beach proceeded to fall below sea level as shingle from the beach filled into the holes of the littoral cell, causing waves to hit the cliff directly. Due to Hallsands not having a beach, on 26th January 1917, storms hit the soft rock at the base of the cliff directly. One storm event in 48 hours destroyed the whole village. This is an example of how soft engineering, such as beach nourishment requires a much larger understanding of the geomorphic environment. This also displays that soft engineering affects other areas downstream. Finally, it proves that with no management, places are highly susceptible to any forms of erosion. Therefore, although most management schemes are effective to begin with, the length of time it can postpone the effects of the sea varies. Therefore, it is vital that a complete understanding of the sea and its effects is used; otherwise other parts of the coast will be affected, which can also lead to knock on effects elsewhere. Furthermore, it is vital that local councils team up together to prevent large scale environmental damage being caused. ...read more.

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