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OZONE DEPLETION

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Introduction

OZONE DEPLETION The 1985 report of the discovery of an "ozone hole" over Antarctica focused attention on the idea that humans can have a significant impact on the global environment. This discovery, along with evidence that ozone is being lost at nearly all latitudes outside the tropics, has prompted much research into the causes of ozone depletion and the biological effects of increased ultraviolet radiation exposure. The potential effects on humans and the environment have led to international resolutions designed to gradually phase out production of ozone-depleting substances. As a result, the scientific and industrial communities have collaborated to find safe and economical replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), the manmade chemicals implicated in ozone loss. OZONE LAYER The ozone layer is a concentration of ozone molecules in the stratosphere. About 90% of the planet's ozone is in the ozone layer. The layer of the Earth's atmosphere that surrounds us is called the troposphere. The stratosphere, the next higher layer, extends about 10-50 kilometers above the Earth's surface. Stratospheric ozone is a naturally-occurring gas that filters the sun's ultraviolet (UV) ...read more.

Middle

These substances are non-toxic, non-flammable, and non-reactive with other chemical compounds. These desirable safety characteristics, along with their stable thermodynamic properties, make them ideal for many applications--as coolants for commercial and home refrigeration units, aerosol propellants, electronic cleaning solvents, and blowing agents. EFFECTS UV RAYS Stratospheric ozone protects the biosphere from potentially damaging doses of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B). Recent depletion of stratospheric ozone could lead to significant increases in UV-B reaching the Earth's surface. UV-B radiation is responsible for a wide range of potentially damaging human and animal health effects, primarily related to the skin, eyes, and immune system. Human exposure to UV-B depends upon an individual's location (latitude and altitude), the duration and timing of outdoor activities (time of day, season of the year), and precautionary behavior (use of sunscreen, sunglasses, or protective clothing). An individual's skin color and age can influence the occurrence and severity of some of the health effects from exposure to UV-B. ENVIRONMENT Effects of increased ultraviolet radiation on biological systems had been investigated even before the ozone-depletion issue came to prominence. ...read more.

Conclusion

Several environmental and economic factors need to be considered in HYPERLINK "http://www.ciesin.org/TG/OZ/cfcphs.html" Chlorofluorocarbon Phase out , such as safety characteristics, efficiency, and ozone-depletion potential, and economic impacts on industry of phase out schedules for existing CFCs. REDUCTION OF OZONE DEPLETION Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) still contain chlorine atoms, but the presence of hydrogen makes them reactive with chemical species in the troposphere. This greatly reduces the prospects of the chlorine reaching the stratosphere, as chlorine will be removed by chemical processes in the lower atmosphere. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), potential replacements for CFCs that contain no chlorine, have been evaluated for potential effects of fluorine compounds on ozone destruction. Normal Normal Heading 1 Heading 1 Default Paragraph Font Default Paragraph Font Normal (Web) Normal (Web) Hyperlink Hyperlink Debjani Das'C:\My Documents\evs\OZONE DEPLETION.doc Debjani Das'C:\My Documents\evs\OZONE DEPLETION.doc Debjani DasSC:\WINDOWS\Application Data\Microsoft\Word\AutoRecovery save of OZONE DEPLETION.asd Debjani DasSC:\WINDOWS\Application Data\Microsoft\Word\AutoRecovery save of OZONE DEPLETION.asd Unknown�! Times New Roman Times New Roman Symbol Symbol MS Reference Sans Serif MS Reference Sans Serif Verdana Verdana OZONE DEPLETION OZONE DEPLETION Debjani Das Debjani Das Debjani Das Debjani Das OZONE DEPLETION Debjani Das Normal Debjani Das Microsoft Word 9.0 Invensys ME OZONE DEPLETION _PID_HLINKS http://www.ciesin.org/TG/OZ/cfcphs.html http://www.ciesin.org/TG/OZ/cfcphs.html http://www.ciesin.org/TG/PI/POLICY/montpro.html http://www.ciesin.org/TG/PI/POLICY/montpro.html Root Entry 1Table 1Table WordDocument WordDocument SummaryInformation SummaryInformation DocumentSummaryInformation DocumentSummaryInformation CompObj CompObj ObjectPool ObjectPool Microsoft Word Document MSWordDoc Word.Document.8 ...read more.

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