• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month


Extracts from this document...


OZONE DEPLETION The 1985 report of the discovery of an "ozone hole" over Antarctica focused attention on the idea that humans can have a significant impact on the global environment. This discovery, along with evidence that ozone is being lost at nearly all latitudes outside the tropics, has prompted much research into the causes of ozone depletion and the biological effects of increased ultraviolet radiation exposure. The potential effects on humans and the environment have led to international resolutions designed to gradually phase out production of ozone-depleting substances. As a result, the scientific and industrial communities have collaborated to find safe and economical replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), the manmade chemicals implicated in ozone loss. OZONE LAYER The ozone layer is a concentration of ozone molecules in the stratosphere. About 90% of the planet's ozone is in the ozone layer. The layer of the Earth's atmosphere that surrounds us is called the troposphere. The stratosphere, the next higher layer, extends about 10-50 kilometers above the Earth's surface. Stratospheric ozone is a naturally-occurring gas that filters the sun's ultraviolet (UV) ...read more.


These substances are non-toxic, non-flammable, and non-reactive with other chemical compounds. These desirable safety characteristics, along with their stable thermodynamic properties, make them ideal for many applications--as coolants for commercial and home refrigeration units, aerosol propellants, electronic cleaning solvents, and blowing agents. EFFECTS UV RAYS Stratospheric ozone protects the biosphere from potentially damaging doses of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B). Recent depletion of stratospheric ozone could lead to significant increases in UV-B reaching the Earth's surface. UV-B radiation is responsible for a wide range of potentially damaging human and animal health effects, primarily related to the skin, eyes, and immune system. Human exposure to UV-B depends upon an individual's location (latitude and altitude), the duration and timing of outdoor activities (time of day, season of the year), and precautionary behavior (use of sunscreen, sunglasses, or protective clothing). An individual's skin color and age can influence the occurrence and severity of some of the health effects from exposure to UV-B. ENVIRONMENT Effects of increased ultraviolet radiation on biological systems had been investigated even before the ozone-depletion issue came to prominence. ...read more.


Several environmental and economic factors need to be considered in HYPERLINK "http://www.ciesin.org/TG/OZ/cfcphs.html" Chlorofluorocarbon Phase out , such as safety characteristics, efficiency, and ozone-depletion potential, and economic impacts on industry of phase out schedules for existing CFCs. REDUCTION OF OZONE DEPLETION Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) still contain chlorine atoms, but the presence of hydrogen makes them reactive with chemical species in the troposphere. This greatly reduces the prospects of the chlorine reaching the stratosphere, as chlorine will be removed by chemical processes in the lower atmosphere. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), potential replacements for CFCs that contain no chlorine, have been evaluated for potential effects of fluorine compounds on ozone destruction. Normal Normal Heading 1 Heading 1 Default Paragraph Font Default Paragraph Font Normal (Web) Normal (Web) Hyperlink Hyperlink Debjani Das'C:\My Documents\evs\OZONE DEPLETION.doc Debjani Das'C:\My Documents\evs\OZONE DEPLETION.doc Debjani DasSC:\WINDOWS\Application Data\Microsoft\Word\AutoRecovery save of OZONE DEPLETION.asd Debjani DasSC:\WINDOWS\Application Data\Microsoft\Word\AutoRecovery save of OZONE DEPLETION.asd Unknown�! Times New Roman Times New Roman Symbol Symbol MS Reference Sans Serif MS Reference Sans Serif Verdana Verdana OZONE DEPLETION OZONE DEPLETION Debjani Das Debjani Das Debjani Das Debjani Das OZONE DEPLETION Debjani Das Normal Debjani Das Microsoft Word 9.0 Invensys ME OZONE DEPLETION _PID_HLINKS http://www.ciesin.org/TG/OZ/cfcphs.html http://www.ciesin.org/TG/OZ/cfcphs.html http://www.ciesin.org/TG/PI/POLICY/montpro.html http://www.ciesin.org/TG/PI/POLICY/montpro.html Root Entry 1Table 1Table WordDocument WordDocument SummaryInformation SummaryInformation DocumentSummaryInformation DocumentSummaryInformation CompObj CompObj ObjectPool ObjectPool Microsoft Word Document MSWordDoc Word.Document.8 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Environmental Management section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Environmental Management essays

  1. TOPIC: OZONE - DEVIL IN DISGUISE?1.0 INTRODUCTION Ozone (O3) is an allotropic ...

    ozone also harms plants and causes the gross reduction in crop productions annually. This is because it obstructs photosynthesis and affects plant resistance towards diseases, insects, pollutants and weather. Ozone too destroys the landscape of forests, parks and cities (Stattersfield n.d., US Regulatory Commission 2003).

  2. Examine the impact human activity has had on weather and climate by investigating global ...

    Nitrous oxide is another contributor to the greenhouse gases. It too absorbs long wave radiation just like the other pollutants. This nitrous oxide comes from many things like nitrate fertilisers which are widely used in farming. A lot comes from transport and the use of cars etc.

  1. Ozone (O3) is an allotropic form of oxygen with three atoms in each molecule. ...

    Environmental Protection Agency 2005). 5.0 OTHER REACTIONS OF OZONE Ozone can also react with alkali metal hydroxides to form ozonide, a compound containing O3-. Another reaction involving ozonides is ozonolysis, a reaction between ozone and alkenes. A machine called ozonator is used where ozone is passed through an alkene solution to produce ozonide which is then reduced.

  2. Emerging Chemical Contaminants: The Case of Perfluorochemicals

    They are also used in the manufacture of paints, adhesives, waxes, polishes, metals, electronics, and caulks (Simik 2005). The worldwide production of FTOHs for the period of 2000-2002 was estimated to be between 5 and 6.5 � 106 kg year-1, of which 40% is produced in North America (Ellis et al.

  1. A report concerning new business development in the local area, which is the Paddington ...

    Due to the increased number of people in the area, it caused congestion and traffic delays which in the end resulted in students being late for their lessons. Consequently, this affected their day and also disrupted those who did manage to come to school on time.

  2. The causes of desertificationDesertification is the degradation of drylands. It involves the loss of ...

    time of drought Midwestern farmers used ploughs better suited for the more temperate latitudes of Western Europe. In recent decades, similar mistakes in the choice of policies or technologies have led to land degradation in many countries, both developed and developing.

  1. The Ozone a Hole in the TheoryThe protective ozone layer around our world undergoes ...

    The human rac! e has become so caught up in how great and powerful the human population think they have become that they cannot see how truly minuscule they really are. Just think how much force it would take to put a hole in the ozone, or eliminate it one hundred percent in

  2. Smog and Ozone.

    One attempt to stop this problem has been the introduction of catalytic converters in car exhaust systems. A catalytic converter sits inside a car and uses a catalyst to convert three harmful compounds in car exhaust into harmless compounds.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work