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Physical Appearance.

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Thornhill Assignment Physical Appearance The maps cover the years 1855 to 1941(86 years.) Over these years there are many changes, for example, maps A and B you can see a huge change. That is from a rural area (countryside) to an urbanised area (town.) Between B and C the change is not drastic but there is more housing. I am going to look at use of land over the years, the changes in architectural style and also the physical appearance of the area today. John Thornhill built houses 1-17 in 1871-72 and he built houses 18-29 in 1894 because he could not afford to build them all at the same time. Middle class people lived in these houses. The houses have sash windows and bay windows which are a sigh of wealth. The houses have a room in the attic which was for the servants yet again this proves that these people are wealthy to be able to afford a servant, but sometimes the room in the attic was used as a nursery and they had bars on the attic window for precaution. Today the fronts of the houses can not be changed because there is a preservation order. ...read more.


Because of the growing population churches were built and people worshipped in different ways they were Catholic, Anglican, Methodist and United Reformed churches. The land was used for farms. Most of the farms were enclosed. The fields were used to grow corn or wheat. In 1855 farming was the main industry. They were other industries that we can see on the 1855 map. The coal mines were in the area because the Hetton Company Railway (HCR). The coal mines were on the map and they had a depot where the coal could be kept and stored. This tells us there is a raise in the demand for coal because the population in the town Sunderland is growing. If we look at the census returns many jobs mentioned here are to do with the coal industry . The railway would go down to the staithes (were the boats and coal stopped) on the river wear so that coal could be put on to the collier and could be taken down to London. Evidence of this is the coal depot and the Hetton company railway. There was a timber yard on the 1855 map. Timber could be used for ship making and making houses because the population is growing. ...read more.


There was also extra buildings built onto the school, St Francis Desales, O'Connell, two canteens, two gyms and a swimming pool and it is a compressive school but it used to be a grammar school, you had to pass a test to get in. There was a Hetton Coal Company railway which was built by George Stephenson and it was opened up in 1822 to carry coal to the staithes on the river wear for transport to London for example. There was also the North Eastern Railway company, this use to carry passengers and gods. There was the Durham Road and many walkers. They used to be horses and carriages, farm vehicles and horse and carts. On the 1897 map there is still the North Eastern Railway and the Hetton Company Railway. The Durham Road has being re-angled and is now know as the New Durham Road and this road goes direct into the Sunderland town centre. The road joins a tram way. The horse drawn tram service begins in 1879 and in 1897 there is a road pattern established. In 1941 we still have the Hetton company railway and the North Eastern Railway. The tram way has extended along the New Durham Road to the Hetton Railway Line. In 1900 the tram service was changed into a circle root, and also in 1900 the electric tram took over the horse and tram. . Rachael Harding ...read more.

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