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AS and A Level: Atmosphere & Weathering
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- Marked by Teachers essays 3
- Peer Reviewed essays 1
Discuss the relative importance of physical and human factors in accounting for changes to vegetation over time within ecosystems in the British Isles5 star(s)
This sere is the climax community in that it is stable and no further succession happens after. The climax community is the deciduous woodland biome we know today. The main characteristics include the location in which they are found, which is in temperate maritime climate such as the UK with four distinct seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter. The average temperature in the British Isles is 10oC which is the optimum temperature for a temperate deciduous woodland and rainfall is between 30 and 60 inches. Deciduous trees are physically adapted to the climate of the British Isles.
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This creates turbulence, giving rapid and abrupt changes in the wind speed and direction. Usually the greater area of buildings means the wind is slowed down and also changes its direction, due to the friction produced, compared to the rural areas which have even wind speed due to less friction. This is just one of the impacts that urban areas have on wind. However the large urban buildings in the urban areas also cause the wind to eddy when the strong winds hit buildings.
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B)Explain why the amount of solar radiation absorbed by the earth's surface varies from place to place and from time to time.4 star(s)
The sun radiates solar energy which reaches the earth and is converted to heat. The location and time of this reaction, however, is variable due to the shape and tilt of the earth and the fact that it turns. This means that the energy reaches different places at different intensities at different times of day and different times of the year. This is dependent on many factors, not just those to do with the physical state of the earth. The shape, tilt and spin of the earth is the first factor which effects how much energy is absorbed by an area of earth.
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Air sitting over cold water also tends to be cool. Moreover, a great deal of water evaporates from the oceans. This moisture readily condenses in the marine mixed layer (or marine boundary layer) into stratus clouds and fog. Particularly on the western coastlines of continents, the marine air is blown inland by prevailing winds. In addition, the relatively intense heating of the coastal plain generates strong onshore sea breezes, which also draw marine air inland. Sea and land breezes are created by the contrasting temperature between the land and the oceans (or other large bodies of water, such as lakes).
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* The name differs depending on where the storm formed. If it is formed in the Atlantic then it is a hurricane, if it is formed in the pacific it is called a Typhoon's, if they're formed in South East Asia they are cyclones and of the coast of Australia they are called Willy Willies. Scale Number (Category) Sustained Winds (MPH) Damage Storm Surge 1 74-95 Minimal: Unanchored mobile homes, vegetation and signs. 4-5 feet 2 96-110 Moderate: All mobile homes, roofs, small crafts, flooding.
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These are very dry because prevailing winds come over the land and land masses are very large. Finally we 'temperate' climates such as in the UK which are located 40-60�c North and are fairly dry but can also be very wet and are also very cold with a lot of vegetation growth. I have stated that major climate zones are clearly caused by our climate but specifically the main factors that influence our climate zones are firstly 'the angle of the sun' which affects these climates.
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This led to a detrimental effect on Local fisher folk who became severely concerned about the increased loss of mangroves as this led to decrease in wild stocks and extinction of several commercial fish species. 'The Penang Inshore Fishermen Welfare Association states that its survey revealed that 34 species of fish have become extinct and another 50 or more are becoming rare in the waters off Penang.' In the early 1990's, the government here identified huge areas of mangrove forest suitable for tiger prawn rearing, and state governments and related agencies were quick to alienate very valuable mangrove and peat
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In the experiment mimicking extratropical cyclones, how does the apparatus represent the atmosphere of the Earth? Point out the essential elements of the analogy as well as the elements that are neglected.
Elements that are neglected include any terrain, living organisms or things that are actually affected by weather events, the Southern hemisphere, and the spherical shape of the Earth is not represented. Describe the flow pattern between the inner and outer walls. In what ways is it analogous to the flow patterns of the real atmosphere? The meandering flows of the red and green dye are very similar to the flow patterns of the real atmosphere; they carried heat from an area of a higher temperature to an area of lower temperature.
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In 2005 research showed that by doubling CO2 levels it would lead to a temperature rise of about 3C. Some other models showed temperatures rises to as much as 11C, when these stories were published the press was releasing only one figure - 11C, an over dramatisation of the possible outcome of increasing CO2 levels. In the Seventies a number of scientists noticed that the world's temperatures had been falling for 30 years, which lead them to warn that we might be heading for a new ice age.
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With the aid of a diagram, describe the process of the atmospheric energy budget. Discuss the influence of the energy budget on the climate of deserts.
50 units of radiation would be able to pass through the atmosphere and reaches the earth. This is the first stage of the process of the atmospheric energy budget. Secondly, after accumulating enough energy in the ground, 113 of them will be radiated from the surface with 107 absorbed by the atmosphere. 97 units out of the 107 units will become counter-radiation and it would be reflected back to the ground. As a result, the net gain in longwave radiation in the atmosphere would be 10 units. On the other hand, 22 units of latent heat would be transferred from the surface when water evaporates, together with the 10 units of sensible heat transfer, energy gain from the ground to the atmosphere would be 32 units altogether.
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Describe and explain the spatial patterns of climatic regions with extreme atmospheric energy supplies. Illustrating your answer with examples, discuss how atmospheric energy flow may be modified by human activities.
The above situation happens because the large latitudinal difference is an important factor in controlling climates of different region. Firstly, the extreme atmospheric energy supplies is contributed by the latitudinal difference because it affects the angle of the sun. In low latitude regions, the angle of sun is small and then energy they receive would be very concentrated. However, in high latitude regions, the angle is bigger and the area receiving the stroke of sunlight would be bigger, this spread the energy and so marking the difference in atmospheric energy supplies.
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such disasters, looking at this graph I borrowed from the geography review website shows that over time there has been a marked increase in hurricane activity, adding a trend line and calculating the average seems to give a result of about 3 extra hurricanes and other related hazards every 10 years. Is the intensity of hurricanes increasing? Several studies show a clear global trend toward increased intensity of the strongest hurricanes over the past two or three decades. The strongest trends are in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean.
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That doesn't seem right does it? It seems even worse when satellites records, which are thought to be a reliable piece of evidence, prove that climate is dominated by a negative feedback and that the response to doubled, even quadrupled carbon dioxide emissions is minimal. Keep this in mind when you listen to those fools who present a computer prediction as a certainty, forgetting that computers are man-made and therefore not perfect. Computers can predict upon the input of certain statistics and upon a expected scale however no computer model could have predicted in 1991 that the explosion of Volcano Pinatubo would cause the entire earth
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He earns about Tk 350 normally if the weather is fine. However, change of weather affects his income as less people are at the street if there is more heat. Then his income faces a slump and his working hour increases. On the other hand, initially continues rain or depression is good for him as he gets a higher fare and tips from the passengers. But again he falls sick for being drenched in rain and thus cannot work for next one or two days. So again the income goes down.
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Housing damage and destruction was widespread and stretched up to 100km from the hurricane centre. At least 100,00 temporary homes were set up across the region.. Services in New Orleans were severely damaged. Even after 6 months after the hurricane there was no functioning sewage system and gas and electricity supplies were unavailable. Agriculture suffered great losses including the death of nine million poultry in Mississippi, while in the same state the dairy industry lost $12 million.. The forestry industry in the region also suffered heavily; over a million acres of forest was destroyed. Due to Katrina, the total financial loss to the timber industry is estimated at $5 billion.
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Photochemical smog is the most widely known and perhaps most serious air pollutant. It is formed in the atmosphere by the reaction between gaseous pollutants, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons
The extensive use of coal is because there is a lot of it around. Although it produces pollutants coal is an important fuel for some considerable time to come. A coal-fired power station has three main inputs: coal, cooling water pure water to use in steam turbines. The main outputs are electricity, waste heat, CO2, SOx, NOx and ash. SOx emissions All living organisms contain compounds of sulphur which are the origin of the sulphur found in coal. When coal burns, the sulphur compounds are converted to oxides of sulphur. NOx Emissions The flue gases in the power station contain oxides of nitrogen (NOx).
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Attrition The process it which rocks already eroded from the cliffs, causing abrasion, are slowly worn down into smaller and more rounded particles. Solution (corrosion) Mainly the erosion of calcium based rock, such as limestone. Limestone can be dissolved by carbonic acid present in sea water. The evaporation of salts from water in the rocks produces crystals, these expand as they form, causing the rock to weaken and disintegrate. Transportational Processes Long-Shore Drift Most waves move toward the shore at a slight angle.
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Identify the conditions which lead to the formation of an intense tropical low pressure system (hurricane or typhoon).
Describe the weather conditions associated with the passage of such systems and explain their varying impact on human activity. The spiralling, rising air develops around a calm central eye that usually ranges from 10km to 50km in diameter. Wind speeds are at least 118kmh and can be as much as 300kmh in extreme cases. The whole weather system of a hurricane (taking more than just the storm's eye into account) can reach diameters of 200 to 700km. A substantial amount of rainfall occurs, often over 100mm per day. As a hurricane moves westwards it eventually crosses the land, where it soon loses its source of heat and moisture (the warm sea) and so it declines in size and strength.
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Falling precipitation in urban areas is quickly removed from the surface by the efficient drainage systems in place in the urban areas, the result being that more energy is retained in the atmosphere. The temperature variations existent in urban heat islands are even more significant in the winter, due to the greater addition of domestic heating systems to the atmosphere. In general, there are significant increases in temperature occurring increasing from the outer areas to the centre by about 2 - 4 C�.
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At the equator, intense solar radiation causes high temperatures here. Air is heated, which in turn makes it expand and rise. This air then flows outwards towards the poles at high altitudes. However, near the poles the temperature is much colder. Therefore, air tends to sink and flow towards the equator at low altitudes. Air moving away from the equator cools and sinks before it reaches the polar regions, this occurs at between 20 and 30� latitude. This causes sub tropical high pressure belts; these are zones which experience a dry climate and are typically desert regions eg.
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Outline the main causes of air movement. Discuss the application and limitations of the tri-cellular model.
(b) Discuss the application and limitations of the tri-cellular model. The tri-cellular model gives us a clearer indication on the reasons behind why climates vary between the equator and the poles. However, the model still has its limits as the positioning of the overhead sun changes causing seasonal shifts in the positions of high and low pressure areas. The model is very simplified because it only indicates North-South movement of energy. It also doesn't take into account the middle latitudes of East-West air movement such as the jet streams and rossby waves that disrupt the Ferrel Cell.
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(a) What is meant by the concept of climax communities in plant succession? (b) Analyse the role of human activity in plant succession.
(b) Analyse the role of human activity in plant succession. Plagioclimax, if reached can stop or alter the natural succession so climatic climax can never be achieved resulting in a sub climax. A few examples of this would be clearing, burning, planting, harvesting, urbanisation and pollution. Secondary succession would be a result of this as it would occur on a surface that had previously been influenced by an allogenic factor, for example land clearings from forest fires. There are few physical environments that remain stable long enough for a climax to be reached because of human interference.
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The conditions experienced vary from the beginning of the depression to the end. When depression first approaches there is a continuous fall in pressure and the visibility rapidly deteriorates with cloud formation of cirrus clouds beginning to occur. As the warm front approaches closer the depression changes direction with the southerly wind becoming more south westerly. The cirrus clouds turn to altostratus due to the warm air of the front rising over the cold air and condensing, which leads to rain to start falling. At the passage of the warm front the pressure stops falling further and stabilises, with a marked rise in the temperature and humidity.
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2.9 Lemons 2.5 Lowest recorded acid rain 2.4 Dilute nitric acid 1.0 Acidic substances such as sulphuric acid can react easily with metals such as potassium. When it reacts it can be dangerous and can burn and destroy the metal completely. Acidity is measured using a pH scale from 1 to 14.An alkaline substance would about 9 to 14 and an acid substance 1 to 4. Neutral substances are of pH value 7. The acid in acid rain is very weak and dilute as it is mixed with a large amount of water in the atmosphere.
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There are no national parks in the southeast London area. There are a variety of countryside natural attractions including gardens, nature trails, private farms, forests and woodland, wetland, smaller area of open space often used for out-door recreation, wildlife parks, and bird sanctuaries all of which are not national parks, but can be important countryside attractions. The coastal areas of Britain, separate to beaches and resorts, include costal walks, natural wildlife and scenery, which are popular with tourists. Location and access to countryside is important for the following reasons: 1.
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