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AS and A Level: Coastal Landforms
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- Marked by Teachers essays 3
Understanding natural systems is the key to successful management of coasts. To what extent do you agree with this view?4 star(s)
Spatial variations may cause this trend to fail, but even so a wave with more energy will have more impact on the coastline. Along the Kenyan coast, some small coral reefs can be found. These help to minimize wave energy and thus prevent rapid rates of erosion. However, due to tourism these are becoming destroyed and die, and as such cause more erosion on the coast of Kenya. The shape of the beach will also determine how damaging the effects of waves are.
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Explain why, for both physical and human reasons, some coastlines attract more management than others.4 star(s)
Furthermore, the sediment build-up and sea floor surrounding the area will have a large influence on the have energy, and as a result will be investigated before construction of a particular form of engineering can take place. Some coastlines that would attract lots of human management are those that are areas of large settlements. When people live in a coastal area they do not want to have to move their homes and will endeavour to manage the coastline to protect their land as much as possible.
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Hengistbury Head is located in the south of England and has many prevention processes to prevent cliff erosion such as groynes, gabions and revetments.3 star(s)
We are also investigating the erosion and damage of the beach and cliffs and investigating what is being done to prevent this. On the first day of the project at Hengistbury Head, we have to investigate the physical and natural changes to the beach and cliff landscape. We have to investigate the usage of the land at Hengistbury Head, and mention all the physical features and coastal defences that are present at Hengistbury Head. We must also note down all the human features present at the location such as management, archaeological sites, footpaths, car parks and cafes.
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are often narrow offering little protection and waves pick up gravel in storm conditions attacking the cliffs through abrasion Why Is Coastal Erosion As Issue? - The area is a coastal resort and a residential area containing �millions of property near the coast - The main east-west communications route passes close to the edge in some places - The town has a large population of older buildings, not built with land protection in mind - Slope failure on this coast
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A coastline is where the land meets the sea or ocean. The space between them is referred to as the costal zone or the littoral zone. Why exactly do we study coasts?
Erosion particularly affected, and still effects the environment. Eroding cliffs sends debris from destroyed houses and other buildings into the water, which can kill animals, either by them eating the debris or getting caught inside of it. Waves crash up onto the sand and knock it back and leave sediment in its place, demolishing the beach environment. We need to learn about costal erosion so we are able to conserve our land and wildlife. A solution to prevent costal erosion from happening so drastically is to put sea defences into place.
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The gradient and length of the beach face can be hypothesised to increase in the direction of longshore drift, as the amount of the beach material contributes to a steeper and longer beach face. The increase of beach material along the beach can then be deduced using the gradient and length. According to Bird (2008) on beach budgets, conventional methodology can be used in this way to calculate differences in amount of beach sediment along the beach by looking at the cross sectional area of a beach profile.
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The Barrier Reef became a marine park in 1975 and was designated a World Heritage site in 1981 (Dove et al, 2009). Human activities are the reef's biggest threat. Water running off the land from agricultural and urbanised areas has been found to contain pesticides, chemicals and other pollutants which can endanger the delicate coral reef ecosystem. Overfishing, especially of a particular group or species of fish, has become a considerable risk that needs to be addressed. Both commercial and tourist ships regularly cross the Great Barrier Reef area, which potentially could result in chemical and oil spills.
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The multiplicity of factors involved and their local variations result in a wide variety of coastal landforms. Thus, "even within the small compass of Britain, one can contrast sinuous inlets of the South-West, the great sea lochs of Scotland, the low glacial coastline of East Anglia, the marshes of the Thames Estuary and the imposing chalk and limestone cliffs of the south coast" (Goudie, 1993). It has frequently been argued that systems of classifications are simply aids to description and understanding. By reducing large bodies of information down to a relatively small number of categories, order is imposed on apparent chaos, complexity is reduced to relative simplicity, and description and analysis are thereby facilitated.
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Importance of coasts to humans include many factors such as premium economic industry sites for industry and marine trade, water for cooling systems or for delivery of bulk items brought from over sea's, habitats such as ecosystems, coastal natural protection from sloped beaches, defensive sites for human/ residential development.
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The majority of people seem to be after a short or long walk as 57% of people say so. Also, my data shows that the main attractions of Box Hill are the scenic views gathering 64%. Although the second most popular attraction only hits 24% there is a 19% difference between the peace & quiet and the next option. My results also show that both Refreshments and The National Trust Shop/ Visitor Centre were the most popular of facilities used. There is only a 2% difference between those two facilities. My data indicates that the most popular area of Box Hill used was the View Point claiming 36%.
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To what extent do you agree with the view that coastal systems are too complex ever to be completely manageable
Due to this, the traditional approach to protecting an area of coastline from flooding was to use hard engineering, as people did not realise it would affect other areas of coastline. But now scientists and geographers have realised that the coastline is dynamic, and the past ways of managing the coast were not the best solution and have caused far worse problems in other areas; their has been an adoption of a more "hands-off" approach. The extent of the problem caused now can be seen by the numerous cases of retreat of cliff lines or coastal flooding.
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A plan of a beach is a bird's eye view which shows it's shape in relation to surrounding features. Beach can come in many shapes and sizes therefore the profile will change in width, gradient and show different features such as ridges, and storm beaches. As well as changing from beach to beach the profile can change at different points along the same beach. From looking at beach profiles you can tell that width and gradient tend to be linked. Wide beaches tend t be gently sloping, whereas narrow beaches tend to be steep. You can also link gradient and therefore width with sediment size.
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Coral reefs, globally are under threat. Describe the problems faced by coral reefs today. To what extent are these threats human induced? What steps, if any can be taken to either reverse damage done or protect reefs still in existence?
Fringing reefs are platforms that are continuous with the shore or continental shelf. That means they grow right up to the edge of the shore. An example of a fringing reef is Buccoo Reef in southwest Tobago. Barrier Reef: Barrier reefs lie parallel to the coasts, and are separated from the shore by a wide and deep lagoon; they usually form a broken ring around islands. They grow where there is a change of sea level on the adjacent coast.
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This progressive system of positive feedback can damage cliffs greatly and cause rapid weathering.This results from the force of the water hitting the cliffs. Corrasion: This is caused by the waves picking up stones as they reach the shore and hurling them at the cliffs, causing a gradual breakdown of the cliff face. Attrition: Material carried by the waves will become rounder and smaller over time. Salt weathering: When the salt water of a wave hits a rock or cliff, the area is covered in salt water.
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DATA COLLECTION This experiment was carried out on the 11th July 2008 in Walton on the naze, Essex. MY METHOD I needed to investigate the evidence that erosion was still taking place on the north beach . In order to perform this, I measured the width from the old pillbox to the bottom of the cliff. I used a measuring tape. The measurement was very relevant because knowing this would help validate how far the cliffs were retreating over a span of years.
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The river cut a valley and breached the Portland stone, cutting the first notch in the cove. The rising sea level flooded into the valley and gouged out the cove. The sea exploited cracks and faults in the hard Portland rock and Purbeck limestone. However, after the two hard rocks, the rest of the land is made of soft rock. The sea quickly eroded the Weladen clay, Gualt clay and greensand by abrasion, hydraulic action and subaerial erosion. After the soft rock is a layer of chalk, which is hard and difficult to erode. Therefore the cove was eroded horizontally.
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Finally, landforms can be affected by two other factors. Eustatic adjustment is the first, and this is when the sea level moves up and down, whereas isostatic adjustment is where land rises or falls, mostly due to earthquakes. Primarily, this essay will be looking at areas affected by falling sea levels. Falling sea level can cause coastlines to retract and can expose new land. For example, a characteristic of West Scotland is raised beaches, a eustatic adjustment. Raised beaches are wave cut platforms or beaches that have risen above the shore line by a relative fall in sea level.
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Of the wide variety of hard defenses, groynes are arguably the most effective at creating dunes. While deposition generally equals erosion on the leeside, a properly placed groyne can be extremely successful. Waterside, Pictou County, has the fastest growing dune system in Nova Scotia, due to a groyne [See Photo 1]. The groyne is ideally placed, with the leeside as the entrance to the local harbor. This means that the eddies from the groyne help to keep the harbor mouth clean.
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from across the Atlantic. Waves differ in shallow water compared to in deep, when in deep water the depth of the water is greater then half the wavelength this causes the drag of the wind over the sea surface to make water move in an orbital motion. As waves are surface features the size of orbiting decreases with depth. As waves approach the shore and the seabed gets closer to the surface of the water the base of the wave begins to slow down due to friction this causes the circular oscillation of the wave to become more elliptical.
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5): * A supply of dry sand, wide beach * Onshore winds * Low lying land behind the beach Although the sand dunes take up around 9% of the UK's coastline (See Fig 4) they are seriously under threat, as they can easily be eroded from both human and physical activities, i.e. human activity (trampling). This has meant that pathways among the sand dunes have eroded to a point where plants are being destroyed; causing the roots that bind the sands/soils together, and protect it from erosion have gone, so is at greater risk from the eroding winds.
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On the OS map which is included with the coursework; The grid reference for Cley is 606375 The grid reference for Cromer is 623377 Coastal Protection There are many sea defences such as Flat Wall Sea, Angled Sea Wall, Riprap, Groynes, Rock Armour Groynes, Bore Pipes, Beach Nourishments, Shingle Ridge, Revetment and Gabions. Flat sea wall: Flat sea walls are made out of reinforced concrete; the lifespan of a flat sea wall is maximum of 100 years. The problems with this is that is costs �3,000 per metre.
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Comparison of the Pros and Cons in Both Methods Economically: In Seaford, the beach is a valuable tourist resource, which attracts visitors to stay. More investors will come to Seaford with the place now/being protected from flooding. Shopkeepers would also be attracted to open stalls and booths on the side of the beach with benches along the side. House prices would predict to be risen as well due to their perfect sea views. At Abbotts Farm, on the other hand, is not a tourist attraction. The salt marsh appeals only to eco-students, professors and is only a place for fishing.
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* To assess the impact of coastal management on Christchurch Bay. * To learn some field surveying techniques. * To assess the limitations of the fieldwork carried out. Here is a map of the three sites of Christchurch bay Hypothesis a. The main process at work on the ChristChurch Bay is depositions b. Hard engineering has had a significant impact on Christ Church Bay. c. Human intervention has a significant impact on Barton on Sea and Hurst Castle Spit d. Sediment on Barton on Sea and Hurst Castle Spit are being Transported by long shore drift To complete this project data needs to be collected from various places.
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Subsequently, a Management Plan, focusing on restoring the natural ecosystem, has been compiled. This plan details the necessary strategies required to maintain the ecosystem in the future through sustainable use. The information on the variety of organisms at each site was used to create the plan. Mangroves are the key focus of the management plan due to their high importance in the Moreton Bay ecosystems. For that reason, Myora Springs has been discussed in more detail than the other four habitats.
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The land is of high economic value a it has houses and shops on it. Parts of the cliff have now been protected and others have been left by managed retreat areas that are of little economic value like farmland, houses and public buildings and these effects the economy of the area as it has lost its way of making income and cannot support itself. Because this area relies on tourism the beach is important and so needs to be kept. For many centuries now the East Anglian coastline has been slowly eroding for natural reasons.
- Word count: 717