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AS and A Level: Coastal Landforms
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- Marked by Teachers essays 3
Understanding natural systems is the key to successful management of coasts. To what extent do you agree with this view?4 star(s)
Spatial variations may cause this trend to fail, but even so a wave with more energy will have more impact on the coastline. Along the Kenyan coast, some small coral reefs can be found. These help to minimize wave energy and thus prevent rapid rates of erosion. However, due to tourism these are becoming destroyed and die, and as such cause more erosion on the coast of Kenya. The shape of the beach will also determine how damaging the effects of waves are.
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Explain why, for both physical and human reasons, some coastlines attract more management than others.4 star(s)
Furthermore, the sediment build-up and sea floor surrounding the area will have a large influence on the have energy, and as a result will be investigated before construction of a particular form of engineering can take place. Some coastlines that would attract lots of human management are those that are areas of large settlements. When people live in a coastal area they do not want to have to move their homes and will endeavour to manage the coastline to protect their land as much as possible.
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The Barrier Reef became a marine park in 1975 and was designated a World Heritage site in 1981 (Dove et al, 2009). Human activities are the reef's biggest threat. Water running off the land from agricultural and urbanised areas has been found to contain pesticides, chemicals and other pollutants which can endanger the delicate coral reef ecosystem. Overfishing, especially of a particular group or species of fish, has become a considerable risk that needs to be addressed. Both commercial and tourist ships regularly cross the Great Barrier Reef area, which potentially could result in chemical and oil spills.
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The multiplicity of factors involved and their local variations result in a wide variety of coastal landforms. Thus, "even within the small compass of Britain, one can contrast sinuous inlets of the South-West, the great sea lochs of Scotland, the low glacial coastline of East Anglia, the marshes of the Thames Estuary and the imposing chalk and limestone cliffs of the south coast" (Goudie, 1993). It has frequently been argued that systems of classifications are simply aids to description and understanding. By reducing large bodies of information down to a relatively small number of categories, order is imposed on apparent chaos, complexity is reduced to relative simplicity, and description and analysis are thereby facilitated.
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The majority of people seem to be after a short or long walk as 57% of people say so. Also, my data shows that the main attractions of Box Hill are the scenic views gathering 64%. Although the second most popular attraction only hits 24% there is a 19% difference between the peace & quiet and the next option. My results also show that both Refreshments and The National Trust Shop/ Visitor Centre were the most popular of facilities used. There is only a 2% difference between those two facilities. My data indicates that the most popular area of Box Hill used was the View Point claiming 36%.
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A plan of a beach is a bird's eye view which shows it's shape in relation to surrounding features. Beach can come in many shapes and sizes therefore the profile will change in width, gradient and show different features such as ridges, and storm beaches. As well as changing from beach to beach the profile can change at different points along the same beach. From looking at beach profiles you can tell that width and gradient tend to be linked. Wide beaches tend t be gently sloping, whereas narrow beaches tend to be steep. You can also link gradient and therefore width with sediment size.
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This progressive system of positive feedback can damage cliffs greatly and cause rapid weathering.This results from the force of the water hitting the cliffs. Corrasion: This is caused by the waves picking up stones as they reach the shore and hurling them at the cliffs, causing a gradual breakdown of the cliff face. Attrition: Material carried by the waves will become rounder and smaller over time. Salt weathering: When the salt water of a wave hits a rock or cliff, the area is covered in salt water.
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DATA COLLECTION This experiment was carried out on the 11th July 2008 in Walton on the naze, Essex. MY METHOD I needed to investigate the evidence that erosion was still taking place on the north beach . In order to perform this, I measured the width from the old pillbox to the bottom of the cliff. I used a measuring tape. The measurement was very relevant because knowing this would help validate how far the cliffs were retreating over a span of years.
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5): * A supply of dry sand, wide beach * Onshore winds * Low lying land behind the beach Although the sand dunes take up around 9% of the UK's coastline (See Fig 4) they are seriously under threat, as they can easily be eroded from both human and physical activities, i.e. human activity (trampling). This has meant that pathways among the sand dunes have eroded to a point where plants are being destroyed; causing the roots that bind the sands/soils together, and protect it from erosion have gone, so is at greater risk from the eroding winds.
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Comparison of the Pros and Cons in Both Methods Economically: In Seaford, the beach is a valuable tourist resource, which attracts visitors to stay. More investors will come to Seaford with the place now/being protected from flooding. Shopkeepers would also be attracted to open stalls and booths on the side of the beach with benches along the side. House prices would predict to be risen as well due to their perfect sea views. At Abbotts Farm, on the other hand, is not a tourist attraction. The salt marsh appeals only to eco-students, professors and is only a place for fishing.
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They may be the result of igneous intrusions that have been exposed as the surrounding rock has been eroded. The material surrounding the resistant strata is worn back by waves refracting and concentrating energy on the headland; wave erosion as seen in Figure 1. Over time many other eroded landforms are produced such as, sea cliffs, wave cut platforms, stacks, caves, and natural bridges, where the strata is still intact and uniform. Wave-cut platforms extend seaward from the base of a cliff or headland. They are relatively flat rocky shelves that may be exposed during low tide. Their surfaces are shaped by the physical and chemical weathering processes of abrasion, hydraulic action and hydration.
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Observing the environment closely, we made notes, which included field sketches, and also took photos. The erosion occurring at each place, together with the soil type, land use, bolder clay and defences. Details of our findings are included later on in the project. Long shore drift First of all, we visited overstrand. The weather there was hot and blue skies. As a result, I was able to make many notes and also able to ask a questionnaire. We carried on down the coast to Mundesley. Here, we made quite a few questionnaires. Next we went down the Happisburgh, the weather was still fine.
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The fetch is the distance of open water which the wind can blow to create waves. The greater the fetch the more power the waves have when they hit the coast. In the south-west of England the fetch stretches for several kilometres, all the way to South America, Brazil. This combines with the south-westerly prevailing winds to cause serious coastal erosion along Barton's coast. The wind duration is the length that the wind is blowing. The distance that the wind travels depends on the wind duration and the strength of the wind. If the wind is strong and it's blowing for a long time the wave will travel longer and will cause violent waves.
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There are four different dunes in a sand dune ecosystem that relate to the seres. * Embryo * Fore * Yellow * Grey Each of the seres shows differences due to their development thorough the succession process, however is can be hard to tell where each of the seres start due to their proximity to each other. The different seres all have individual properties with different types of vegetation, amounts of vegetation, types of wildlife and edaphic factors. Embryo Dune The species that grow here are determined by the abiotic factors which include wind, nutrient content, soil pH, soil salinity, soil humus and water content in the soil. This will vary in the different seasons.
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The Holderness Coastline is located near East Riding of Yorkshire. The coastline is Europe's fastest eroding coastline. This case study will explain the process and effects of the erosion taking place
The Holderness coast used to be covered with glacier sheets. When it defrosted, it left materials that are very soft and contain rich soil which makes it easy to erode. The two main rocks are chalk and boulder clay, the clay cliffs on the south are easily eroded compared to the more resistance chalk who were less affected by the destructive waves. The coastline is exposed to the destructive waves which travel across the largest fetch. These waves are created by prevailing winds from North-east which travel across a large fetch.
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A Comparison Of Film Techniques Used To Depict The Omaha Landing "Saving Private Ryan" & "The Longest Day"
One film being filmed much nearer the battle itself. Firstly, Saving Private Ryan is in Multi-colour whereas The Longest Day was only made in black and white. In the opening scene of the Longest Day you enter onto Omaha Beach at 06:32 hours (whilst Beethoven's 5th Symphony plays in the background symbolising freedom as the story behind the music is good versus evil) with a Long Shot of the beach in screen and a nice sea view. You then focus in on the Germans talking amongst themselves (in german)
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We had been planning a holiday for a year to our home country India. My father and mother still have relatives there and my brother and I have been several times when we were very young
My dad directed us to the check-in desk queue where we eventually managed to get our luggage weighed and our collected our boarding passes. Anyone would think that the airport would be empty at six thirty a.m., but no, people were everywhere frantically scurrying along trying to find their airline check-in desks. By the time our gate number had been shown we had wandered around the duty free shopping. There was not much of interest for my brother and I so we were glad to be traipsing off to the departure lounge.
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We also recorded if the stone was a pebble, cobble, or boulder. Below is a diagram of how the positions were set out: LINE OF SEA WALL Position 1 Position 2 Position 5 Position 3 Position 4 POSITION OF SEA Results: Groyne Box 1- position 1 Stone number Axis length (mm) Angularity Stone type 1 38 Rounded Pebble 2 28 Rounded Pebble 3 26 Sub rounded Pebble 4 11 Very angular Pebble 5 23 Sub rounded Pebble 6 16 Sub rounded Pebble 7 16 Rounded Pebble 8 29 Sub rounded Pebble 9 28 Sub rounded Pebble 10 25 Very rounded Pebble Groyne Box 1- position 2 Stone number Axis length (mm)
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The next stage, provided that the incipient dune is not destroyed as fast as it accumulates, is the colonisation by marram grass (Ammophilia arenaria). Marram grass possesses a deep branching system of roots which effectively bind the dune together. Furthermore, the plant itself only survives as long as a fresh supply of sand is constantly added to the dune. Once this supply of fresh sand ceases, the marram will die out and will be replaced by other species of plants. Other characteristic plants at the marram stage include sea-holly (Eryngjum maritimum), sea spurge (Euphorbia paralias), and sea sandwort (Arenaria pepliodes).
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The particular area of coastline I studied in detail is on the South-East coastline of England and includes various sites along it. These include Camber sands, Dungeness and St Mary's bay. Authorities worked on a reactive basis
There is also a small number of houses there (small villages) and a lot of drainage ditches surround the area and these act as a protection as they hold the water and drain it back out. In Romney marsh there is a lot of gravel extraction and a few other materials have been extracted, however not much is being done to protect the coastline at the moment. In Camber sands however it transforms into a sand dune ecosystem where the beach acts as a coastal defence and protects the surrounding area.
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My sunrise is nearly complete. I finally manage to pull myself up. My strength is magnificent. I am liquid gold in the sky. I hold my warmth in my arms. Now I can rest for a couple of hours. It is now the early hours of the morning. Still a bit nippy but my warmth will win. Big puffs of cloud jostle and fight in the early morning sky, like huge cotton wool balls or candyfloss at the fair. Soon they will lose their fight and be blown to a place far away, and then the sky shall be mine again.
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Soil forming processes are very diverse but all of them stem from the most dominant process which is the climate. Climate is defined as the meteorological conditions, including temperature, precipitation, and wind, that characteristically prevail in a particular region. Climate underpins soil forming factors such as the soil water balance, type and amount of vegetation, rates of weathering, rates of decomposition and abundance of biota, to name but a few. As zonal soils are formed by the cumulative effect of climate and vegetation, I will first evaluate the effect that climate has on vegetation, and subsequently the type of soil.
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on the beach when the second attack took place everybody was having fun and playing around. The people on the beach were all relaxed and they were all chilling out by listening to the radio. This makes the audience fill safe and less tense from a shark attack. When the shark attacked its victim there's always a pause of silence. This shows death because there's no more noise of the victim crying for help and crying in pain. It also shows how soothing the ocean is and how piece full it is. The second shark attack was when everyone went onto the beach even though chief Brody said that they should shut down the beach.
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In streams what is invertebrate drift and how may upstream populations compensate for loss of individuals downstream.
carried out showed that high water levels increased the amount of drift; also in support of this Logan (1963) and Denham found that there was very little drift during periods of low discharge and the highest amount of drift during the snow melting. Less turbulent streams produced lower amounts of drift and that riffles produce more than pools. Humphries (1938) and Ruxton (2002) noted that it has been argued that drift is simply a production in excess of carrying capacity, and that the loss of numbers will decrease in response to the carrying capacity being attained. So, the suggestion then seems to be that perhaps drift is density dependant.
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I have also collected measurements of the beach itself using raging pole and a clinometer. Ranging poles and clinometer. Ranging poles To take angles of the slopes on a beach and therefore record its profile you need to place the two ranging poles a set distance apart, 4m will be fine, and then stand at one pole with the clinometer and level it up with one of the lines on the pole. Then you look through the clinometer and line up the line inside with the same point on the other ranging pole and read off the angle that is displayed.
- Word count: 1096