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AS and A Level: Coastal Landforms
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The gradient and length of the beach face can be hypothesised to increase in the direction of longshore drift, as the amount of the beach material contributes to a steeper and longer beach face. The increase of beach material along the beach can then be deduced using the gradient and length. According to Bird (2008) on beach budgets, conventional methodology can be used in this way to calculate differences in amount of beach sediment along the beach by looking at the cross sectional area of a beach profile.
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To what extent do you agree with the view that coastal systems are too complex ever to be completely manageable
Due to this, the traditional approach to protecting an area of coastline from flooding was to use hard engineering, as people did not realise it would affect other areas of coastline. But now scientists and geographers have realised that the coastline is dynamic, and the past ways of managing the coast were not the best solution and have caused far worse problems in other areas; their has been an adoption of a more "hands-off" approach. The extent of the problem caused now can be seen by the numerous cases of retreat of cliff lines or coastal flooding.
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On the OS map which is included with the coursework; The grid reference for Cley is 606375 The grid reference for Cromer is 623377 Coastal Protection There are many sea defences such as Flat Wall Sea, Angled Sea Wall, Riprap, Groynes, Rock Armour Groynes, Bore Pipes, Beach Nourishments, Shingle Ridge, Revetment and Gabions. Flat sea wall: Flat sea walls are made out of reinforced concrete; the lifespan of a flat sea wall is maximum of 100 years. The problems with this is that is costs �3,000 per metre.
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The vegetation present helps to stabilise the sand and to trap more sand. The formation of sand dunes - Tides form and storms deposit piles of seaweed and detritus. Amongst this are seeds and colonising plants. These seeds germinate and grow quickly, trapping sand that has been blown from lower down the beach. Over time these mounds of sand are colonised by Couch Grass giving a series of isolated embryo dunes along the top of the beach. As this is happening, a new drift line appears in front of these embryo dunes and this is colonised by pioneer species.
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According to my project guidelines, I am writing on the three main restaurants of the Maritime hotel and the kind of cuisine they each deal with. To add gentle touch to it, I will also mention the bars in the hotel. To gather the information I need for this project, I will need to contact my friends back home in Mauritius, so that they can send me some Brochures about the hotel and I will also try to do some of my research through the internet by logging onto the Mauritian website: http://www.servihoo.com/ Restaurants and Cuisines of Maritim The Maritim,
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To what extent do you agree with the view that coastal systems are too complex to ever be completely manageable?
Hard engineering methods aim to stop the coastal processes from occurring. Soft engineering methods try to work with nature to protect the coast. Coastal lands and sediments are constantly in motion. Breaking waves move sand along the coast, eroding sand in one area and depositing it on an adjacent beach. Tidal cycles bring sand onto the beach and carry it back into the surf. Rivers carry sediment to the coast and build deltas into the open water. Storms cause deep erosion in one area and leave thick over wash deposits in another.
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Does Churchill's description of the operation (source B) support the evidence of the sources C and E?
Source B and Source E show the reason why Churchill mentions "intimacy" was to prevent the Germans from finding out about the operation he was planning on using the element of surprise. Source E backs this up by showing the code names of the beaches so there was no way of the German military knowing where there were. Again both land sea and air are mentioned in the literal sense in source B but in source E they are
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As this happens the object eventually becomes covered with sand. As it gets larger becomes more stable and therefore habitable. With the saline conditions around the sea very few plant species can colonise. Marram grass is one of these pioneer species that can its covers the dune embryos and allows them to become more stabilised. The next formation stage is of fore dunes; these can be up to a meter high and are the successors of embryo dunes. They are formed as the now stabilised embryo dunes gain sand. This process can take place due to the ability of Marram grass to grow nearly as fast as it can be covered with sand.
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The old sea wall which was under attack was suffering frequent damage, but despite all of its repairs the wall had reached the end of what was called its 'useful life.' This meant that the government and local community found that if no improvements were made to the sea wall and defences. If a storm was forecast the damage today would cost over an estimated �21 million. However for a new wall to replace the damaged one the problem was down to who would be responsible for its 'upkeep'.
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Then we released the trigger to measure the angled and noted our results down. The results from these activities will help to answer the first key question: 'What are the differences between the protected and the unprotected beaches at Walton?' These beach surveys will allow me to answer the first key question as I will be able to compare the results from the survey and find the difference between the protected and unprotected beach. As the results form each survey should be different. The benefits from doing these beach surveys are: * I can get a good idea of the steepness of the protected and unprotected beaches * I can get an idea on
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In hydraulic action water is forced into cracks or weaknesses and as the water goes into the hole it compresses the air inside and so it builds up the pressure inside and this causes the rock face to break down. In corrosion it's the pounding of the pebbles and stones, carried by the waves, which are thrown up against the cliff face causing bits of the cliff to cheap and break way. Since the sands are quite a lot softer it means that the Studland Bay area is eroded a lot more quickly then the adjacent headland and so it becomes a bay.
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Does the size of beach material on a beach become smaller and more rounded as we get closer to the edge of the sea.
Here is a map of Font-y-gary beach this is roughly where I started measuring pebbles (Here is an Ariel photography of the area) The beach location on a scale map of Wales Penarth Font-y-gary What I expect to find I expect to find larger more jagged rocks near the cliff edge and I expect to find smaller more curved pebbles near the shoreline. I expect to find this as the rocks near the cliff edge are the latest rocks to have broken off the cliff, thus the sea has had less time to erode these rocks as a result of the rocks still being angular and jagged.
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The A3055 is the main road that runs along the west cliff top and down through the Freshwater area. Methodology The information that I require for my investigation is shown in the tables I1 and I2 below. For my first section I am going to use collection techniques such as: * Photographic evidence * Field Sketches * Quadrat sampling * Transect mapping * Cliff recession mapping These techniques are simple to perform and give clear evidence in answering specific questions. For my second section I am going to use collection techniques such as: * Photographic evidence * Field sketches * Land use mapping These too are simple to perform and effective in giving clear evidence in answering specific questions.
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Investigate the difference in density of limpets on a sheltered rocky shore and on an exposed rocky shore.
The species is usually not abundant on shores with a dense growth of seaweed. Patella vulgata extends into estuaries, surviving salinities down to about 20 psu. 4 Within an ecosystem, an organism, say a limpet is said to fill a niche. A niche is the role of an organism within its community. We can diagrammatically show this niche with the fried egg model. DIAGRAM Organisms can respond to environmental stresses in a variety of ways, a survival response can be thought of as a strategy.
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As the dune succession develops inland, I feel that soil characteristics such as pH, depth, and moisture will change. I expect the soil nearer to high tide to have a more alkaline nature and have a lower moisture content, whereas soil further from the sea will be acidic, hold more moisture and the plant diversity will be greater. The sand dune succession at Coatham sands follows the general pattern of most other sand dunes such as the sand dunes at Dawlish Warren. There are five main stages - embryo dunes, fore dunes, main ridge, grey dunes and finally the climax zone.
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Then, I have to get the tape measure and from the front of the beach, pull the tape measure all the way to the sea front, keeping the quadrant and writing apparatus at hand 4. Then I will place the quadrant as far as possible along the beach just by the tape measure without touching the sea and begin recording my results 5. To do this I will have to count how many squares of the quadrant are covered by which type of biotic or abiotic factors, including substrates, seaweed and organisms 6.
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In the long run as the sea level rose the sand was re-worked and pushed shoreward. "Oxwich Burrows" or the sand dunes at Oxwich stretch the whole length of the Bay. All of it under protection All of it a nature reserve. As can be seen from the aerial photograph (Fig 1:3) the dunes are mature and covered with extensive vegetation. The dunes area holds 300 different species of flowering plants because the dunes provide a great variety of environmental conditions.
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It also has the different areas that I will be focusing to do my tests on I have chosen to do multiple areas on one beach so it becomes a more even and more precise results. The top map is a map of the south west of England and then a close up of the bay I will be focusing by experiment on. Geographical Theory Waves There are two types of wave destructive and constructive. In waves, individual water molecules move in circles.
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To investigate the effects of coastal management, and to investigate the effects of longshore drift.
There is a lot of tourism in Somerset. One place were there is a lot of tourism is in Lynmouth which went through a vicious flood. There is a lot of agricultural in Somerset as it is not as modern as the city of London. Background information We went to Somerset to investigate the effects of Longshore drift one of the main factors of a Bay. Its definition is as follows: Longshore drift: Transport along the coast is when waves move material across a beach.
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Find out the geological appearance, structure and composition at Peacehaven, Newhaven and Rottingdean.
Explanation Of Profile 1, Peacehaven Here there are many joints, faults and lines of weakness and on these faults there are many flint modules much like all the other profiles. Furthermore there are many bedding planes again like the other profiles. Heavy breakers strike the cliffs, forcing water under high pressure into the bedding planes and joints, compressing any air within. As each breaker recedes, the air expands, often with explosive force, and spalls of chalk or larger blocks are split off from the cliffs resulting in the rock falls on the wave cut platform, this is called hydraulic action.
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In this section I will be describing what my data shows for each of the techniques I used at Overstrand. Groyne measurements.
therefore a decrease in the amount of beach sediment moving via LSD to Overstrand. To keep an imperative buffer zone in place, Overstrand must conduct coastal management. B) Due to recreational and agricultural land use, coastal management had been reduced along the coast of Cromer and Overstrand. Therefore, a decrease in the amount of coastal management. C) Coastal management is obligatory at Overstrand as the land use changes -urban, transport, amenities, and services, CBD, economic. However there is a decrease in coastal management up the coast at Cromer, there is less sediment available for buffer zone, therefore an increase in natural processes at Overstrand.
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In this section I will explain all of these features Caves, Arches and Stacks As waves erode cliffs, they work faster on the weaker rocks, carrying them away and leaving the stronger rocks behind. This results in caves. Sometimes, as the waves smash into the caves, they squash the air inside the caves and it finds a way though weak rock in the roof. The place where air comes through the top of the headland is called a blowhole. They are quite rare. If caves form on two sides of a headland, then the caves may erode through and meet.
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The hard rock will be left sticking out forming headlands usually with cliffs. The softer rocks will be eroded to form bays. The erosion causes the bays usually to slope move gently inland, creating room for a beach to form. Beaches then do not stay in one position. The crashing of the waves causes the sand and shingle to move along the coast and gather at a single point, this process is known as longshore drift. A longshore drift is the movement of beach sediments along the shore.
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What different kinds of coastal protection are there along the coast of Norfolk, andwhat do they depend on?
Also, as the name suggests, destructive waves drag material from the beach back into the sea, reducing the length/height of the beach. Long shore drift is when the waves come in at an angle, and go back out straight (perpendicular to the beach), taking the beach material with it. Long Shore Drift changes the coastline because it moves the material across the beach. This happens repeatedly to drag the material further and further down the coastline. Erosion Erosion is the gradual destruction of land by natural and un-natural forces, e.g.
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It is an unequal recession with most of the erosion happening towards the middle of the cliffs. The least erosion has happened in the northeast and the southwest at an average of 36m over 70 years. 4a. At site one, the sea wall, the gradient of the beach is 0?; this is the smallest gradient. It lies 4.7m from the sea wall. The average pebble roundness is 3, or sub angular. The average pebble size is 28.5mm. At site 2, defence, the gradient of the slope is 12? downwards and the slope is 5.3m long. This is the largest gradient.
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