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AS and A Level: Coastal Landforms
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Coral reefs, globally are under threat. Describe the problems faced by coral reefs today. To what extent are these threats human induced? What steps, if any can be taken to either reverse damage done or protect reefs still in existence?
Fringing reefs are platforms that are continuous with the shore or continental shelf. That means they grow right up to the edge of the shore. An example of a fringing reef is Buccoo Reef in southwest Tobago. Barrier Reef: Barrier reefs lie parallel to the coasts, and are separated from the shore by a wide and deep lagoon; they usually form a broken ring around islands. They grow where there is a change of sea level on the adjacent coast.
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* To assess the impact of coastal management on Christchurch Bay. * To learn some field surveying techniques. * To assess the limitations of the fieldwork carried out. Here is a map of the three sites of Christchurch bay Hypothesis a. The main process at work on the ChristChurch Bay is depositions b. Hard engineering has had a significant impact on Christ Church Bay. c. Human intervention has a significant impact on Barton on Sea and Hurst Castle Spit d. Sediment on Barton on Sea and Hurst Castle Spit are being Transported by long shore drift To complete this project data needs to be collected from various places.
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Subsequently, a Management Plan, focusing on restoring the natural ecosystem, has been compiled. This plan details the necessary strategies required to maintain the ecosystem in the future through sustainable use. The information on the variety of organisms at each site was used to create the plan. Mangroves are the key focus of the management plan due to their high importance in the Moreton Bay ecosystems. For that reason, Myora Springs has been discussed in more detail than the other four habitats.
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The meaning of this question is to summarise all my data on the beaches in North Norfolk. I will also use the sediment analysis and the Timed Float to determine the overall destructiveness of the beach. Then I will use the beach profiles along with the Infiltration Rates and the Groyne Measurements to determine the overall effectiveness of the defences. This question describes how sea defences are being used in North Norfolk. I will answer this question using the data I collected on the North Norfolk trip. I chose this question because I thought it was important to discuss the various kinds of beach profiles that we came across in my project.
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The sediments, which form beaches, enter the coastal system from rivers, cliff erosion and wave transport. Beach profiles alter daily, monthly and seasonally; they change because of wave type, frequency and size of beach material. Beach material varies in calibre and shape. Larger material needs more energy to move, but support a larger angle of repose as suggested by the theory of Clowes and Comfort. The angle of repose is the maximum angle of slope (measured from horizontal plane) at which loose cohesionless material will come to rest on a pile of similar material. Fig. 1.1: table showing the angle of repose of different sediment sizes Beach gradient and particle size (Clowes and Comfort, 1987)
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"An investigation into the methods of coastal management along Brighton's Coastline and the reasons for them".
The coast is badly affected by many types of wave erosion. These all come from the effects of wave erosion deposition; sediment transportation and also deposition. Because of this, the waves are influenced by the coastline destructively. Longshore Drift:- In physical geography, longshore drift (LSD) refers to a process by which sediments move along a beach shoreline. The process arises when waves approach the shore obliquely (which in turn is determined by factors such as prevailing wind and fetch). Waves striking the shore at an angle as opposed to straight on will cause the wave swash to move up the beach at an angle.
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It is also an area of outstanding natural beauty (AONB) and a specially protected area (S.P.A). Cley next the sea is so called because it used to be next to the sea. It is now 600m from the sea, the freshwater marsh is now between, due to the river Glaven. The marsh is very important as it is a special habitat for flora (plants) and forna (animals) and needs protecting from the sea salt water. In 1953 the marsh was flooded and again in 1996 and this killed all the plants. It took four years to get it back to a fresh water marshland.
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Pages 16 & 17 * Solutions - Rip-rap information ------------------------ Pages 17 & 18 * Tabulated solutions analysis ----------------------------. Page 18 & 19 Hypothesis * Hypothesis according to aims --------------------------------- Page 21 Method * Method in evidence for Longshore Drift --------------------- Page 21 * Method used for beach profile information ------------ Page 21 & 22 * Beach Profile method ---------------------------------- Pages 21 to 27 * Random Numbers table ---------------------------------------. Page 23 * Powers Index sheet ------------------------------------------- Page 24 * Beach Profile graph -------------------------------------------.
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Water percolates through the permeable sand and gravel until it reaches the impermeable London clay. The water acts as a lubricant, causing the upper sections of the cliff to slip seawards. The sea is also eroding the lower sections of the cliff, leading to even greater instability. The land at the Naze is mainly used for recreation, which includes bird watching. There are a small number of houses on the Naze and around the perimeter there is a nature reserve, Sewage works and farmland there is also Walton Tower. To the north of the Naze there is a bar and a lagoon formed by longshore drift.
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"Comparing the mean ratios of shell height/diameter of the Patella spp on an exposed and sheltered shore"
Wave action causes shell muscles to contract vigorously, clamping the animal to the rock. The full strength of pull of the pedal muscles has been estimated as 3.5kg/cm� (Fischer, 1948). This force, together with the fact that the conical shell offers little resistance to waves, secures the animal against the action of the waves in the most exposed situations. A decrease in wave exposure may reduce the Patella vulgata abundance because the species does not favour thick algal cover that is often present on very sheltered shores. In summation, as wave exposure decreases so does the Patella spp diversity.
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There are two types of glaciated valleys, fjords are highland glaciated valleys and fiards are lowland glaciated valleys. Fjords are over deepened u shaped valleys caused when glaciers meet the sea and cause large amounts of vertical erosion. They tend to be very narrow and proceed under for the water line for a large depth of up to 1300 meters. Fjards are more commonly known as drowned glacial lowlands. They are not easily recognisable as there only visible features are the large drumlins that arise along the coast. A fjard is simply a drowned glacial embayment that is now under the sea level.
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Introduction We went on a Geography field trip with our class to Crowcombe in Somerset. Our class along with Mr Hopping went for three days and two nights, and stayed at the Youth Hostel. I studied and investigated Coasts. Which to be a bit more specific was interaction between sea and land. The general weather conditions were sunny with showery intervals. There are five types of erosion as well as the four types of transport but first I will talk about the types of erosions.
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The small understated stretch of sand spit that is Dawlish Warren is also a Site of Special Scientific Interest, which means it is recognised as being of national importance for wildlife, geology, geomorrphology and under European law it is also an area of particular importance to birds, particularly winter waders and wild fowl including Brent geese and teal- during the winter months birds travel from their northern breeding grounds from as far away as Siberia with many simply passing through on their way further south to rest and refuel.
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Investigate changes in beach characteristics with increasing distance along the shore, Walton on the Naze, Essex.
Run by tendering local authority it relies mostly on tourism economically, which is one of the reasons they have a coastal management scheme which has recently been extended to the north to protect the luxurious houses situated there. Despite of doing some changes along the coast to prevent erosion but coastal erosion, coastal flooding also cliff falls happen on regular basis. I have decided to study Walton-on-the-Naze for a number of reasons. Firstly it is the nearest place along the coast of Essex which has unprotected cliffs as well as protected ones plus in GCSE I had one day visit
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Why Erosion is so Bad The North Norfolk coastline is primarily composed of Quaternary deposits underlain by chalk bedrock. The Chalk is composed of calcium carbonate, which comes from the remains of microscopic marine organisms that lived in a warm shallow sea that covered this area during the Cretaceous period, between 62 and 132 million years ago. Chalk is a soft rock but is relatively more resistant to erosion than the other deposits found on the North Norfolk Coast. The chalk is visible in the base of the cliffs at Weybourne, while between Sheringham and West Runton it is exposed as a wave cut platform at low water.
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Investigate the dominant Coastal processes acting on Porlock bay and also consider suitable management strategies for Porlock bay.
(Fig 2, 3, 4) 2.Wave Action Wave Action is the type of wave that is hitting the coast. It could either be a destructive wave or a constructive wave which is: * Destructive = When there is a weak Swash and a strong Backwash, removes material for the beach. These waves are only built up on rare occasions * Constructive = When there is a strong Swash and a weak Backwash, Builds up beach material. Swash is when the wave collapses into the beach and backwash is when the wave goes back into the sea.
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To achieve this will be using a quadrat to determine what plant life exists (if any) on the dunes. I will also be doing an environmental impact matrix to see what damage I believe humans have done to the area. From this I hope to find if humans have had an effect on the Norfolk Dunes. Food Chain: On my visit, I will also be concentrating on the sand dune ecosystem as a habitat, as well as geographical survey. I have predicted what I expect to come across on my visit, and I have displayed this in a food web.
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"Describe and explain the differences in the coastline North and South of the Tower Breakwater at Walton on the Naze"
Information about Walton on the Naze Walton on the Naze is situated approximately 80km East of Bishops Stortford. It is a small seaside town, on the Tendring Peninsula, on the Essex Coast by the North Sea about 85 miles North of East London. Part of the town is situated on a headland called the 'Naze'. The Naze is made of soft rocks, which are easily eroded by the sea and since 1963 over 2 hectares of land have been lost to the sea. It is estimated that 2 metres of land are lost very year as a result of erosion.
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Investigate the effects of costal processes on Porlock Bay in Somerset and also to investigate transportation along Porlock Bay.
The two points on either side are Hurlstone point and Gore point. Porlock Bay is on the west coast of England. Coasts A coast is the transition between the land and sea. It is where the land meets the sea. The coast, or coastline, around Britain is very varied. It includes beaches, cliffs and sand. Geology The geology of the area of Somerset contains both hard and soft rock. The hard rock is more resistant to the costal processes and the effects of weathering. An example of a hard rock is quartzite However, the soft rock is less resistant to the effects of weathering.
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In my studies I will try and determine how and why management strategies have been put in place at Brancaster in order to stabilise this stretch of coastline.
Along with a reasonably flat surface on which the dune can develop, observed in my site of study, as a wide, flat, open beach, a stabilising agent is also required to control the form of the dune. This is again observed in Brancaster, this time in the form of vegetation, such as marram grass. Due to the site of Brancaster, situated within the shadow of Scolt Head Island, all the agents required in order for sand dunes to develop are present and therefore the natural barrier created as a result blesses Brancaster in many ways.
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-DO NOT enter the sea or work close to the breaker zone. -DO NOT enter the zone within 30 metres of the cliff foot, is considered by experts to be a DANGER AREA. Give the cliffs a wide berth. -NEVER leave any cliff-top path in order to get closer to a cliff edge, smooth grass and undercut rock would make this extremely hazardous. -Remember that farmland is private property, and access is not possib1e except on pub1ic footpaths. ALWAYS keep to footpaths, and on no account climb over any walls or fences I except where stiles have been provided. (picture)
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This shingle beach helps to bring money to the town because of tourists, and so is important to the town. Due mainly to attrition, pebbles and particles of sand are reduced in size as they collide with the rock face and one another. They are picked up from the beach by the action of destructive waves, which have a weak swash and a strong backwash: These pebbles and sand particles are deposited on the beach by constructive waves with a strong swash and a weak backwash: My expectations are that as the pebbles get further away from the shoreline, they increase in size.
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Waves travelling a long distance have time to build up. When they reach the coastline they release a tremendous amount of energy as they break, this can cause maximum damage. The length of water over which the wind has blown is called the fetch. Destructive waves have lots of energy, this is used by the backwash to transport material back down the beach. This action destroys the beach. Destructive waves pull more material away than they deposit, they erode the beaches with a weak swash and powerful backwash. The other type of wave is called constructive waves.
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‘The costs of extending sea defences at Walton-on-the-Naze are too high and the benefits are too small’.
Some of these are often rare, such as Sanderlings, Oyster Catchers and Little Terns. There are also some very unusual plants growing on the Naze. Many of these plants, birds and fossils are threatened with extinction in Britain. The cliffs at Walton are being eroded in mainly two ways, the first is slumping, described in the diagram above. The second is when hydraulic action (when the waves are crashing into the cliff) and abrasion (pebbles rocks etc. thrown at cliff), causes undercutting at the bottom of the cliff. This leaves the base of the cliffs unprotected so the cliffs collapse into the sea.
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which is the double dykes and it was a very important location 2500 years ago. This means the area is now under threat from sea erosion, Sub aerial processes and Human activity like trampling and boat wash erosion. It is being managed now to try and preserve vital parts of the land. Foot paths have been fenced off to avoid trampling and some paths have been laid down especially to stop people taking alternative routes. Quareying has also been a big problem in Hengistbury Head and this picture of how a cliff has been eroded by Quareying shows the scale of this problem.
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