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AS and A Level: Coastal Landforms
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They may be the result of igneous intrusions that have been exposed as the surrounding rock has been eroded. The material surrounding the resistant strata is worn back by waves refracting and concentrating energy on the headland; wave erosion as seen in Figure 1. Over time many other eroded landforms are produced such as, sea cliffs, wave cut platforms, stacks, caves, and natural bridges, where the strata is still intact and uniform. Wave-cut platforms extend seaward from the base of a cliff or headland. They are relatively flat rocky shelves that may be exposed during low tide. Their surfaces are shaped by the physical and chemical weathering processes of abrasion, hydraulic action and hydration.
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Beach being lost by sea currents was therefore not being replaced by longshore drift. * 1/2 million holidaymakers each year create �90 million of tourist income and jobs.
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Observing the environment closely, we made notes, which included field sketches, and also took photos. The erosion occurring at each place, together with the soil type, land use, bolder clay and defences. Details of our findings are included later on in the project. Long shore drift First of all, we visited overstrand. The weather there was hot and blue skies. As a result, I was able to make many notes and also able to ask a questionnaire. We carried on down the coast to Mundesley. Here, we made quite a few questionnaires. Next we went down the Happisburgh, the weather was still fine.
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The fetch is the distance of open water which the wind can blow to create waves. The greater the fetch the more power the waves have when they hit the coast. In the south-west of England the fetch stretches for several kilometres, all the way to South America, Brazil. This combines with the south-westerly prevailing winds to cause serious coastal erosion along Barton's coast. The wind duration is the length that the wind is blowing. The distance that the wind travels depends on the wind duration and the strength of the wind. If the wind is strong and it's blowing for a long time the wave will travel longer and will cause violent waves.
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The meaning of this question is to summarise all my data on the beaches in North Norfolk. I will also use the sediment analysis and the Timed Float to determine the overall destructiveness of the beach. Then I will use the beach profiles along with the Infiltration Rates and the Groyne Measurements to determine the overall effectiveness of the defences. This question describes how sea defences are being used in North Norfolk. I will answer this question using the data I collected on the North Norfolk trip. I chose this question because I thought it was important to discuss the various kinds of beach profiles that we came across in my project.
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When the Bank Holiday Act was brought in, in 1871 it allowed the poor, more common people to escape for a day, when they went to the sea side they looked for different things, they wanted entertainment and fun and as Weston had developed such things as a fun fair on knights stone island and a promenade, Birnbeck pier was the largest attraction with all the thrill of being out over the water and having fun with friends at the same time. Portishead stayed exclusive by doing things like having a toll road, Adelaide terrace (the upper class rental aria)
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The sediments, which form beaches, enter the coastal system from rivers, cliff erosion and wave transport. Beach profiles alter daily, monthly and seasonally; they change because of wave type, frequency and size of beach material. Beach material varies in calibre and shape. Larger material needs more energy to move, but support a larger angle of repose as suggested by the theory of Clowes and Comfort. The angle of repose is the maximum angle of slope (measured from horizontal plane) at which loose cohesionless material will come to rest on a pile of similar material. Fig. 1.1: table showing the angle of repose of different sediment sizes Beach gradient and particle size (Clowes and Comfort, 1987)
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There is a wave-cut notch and a wave cut platform at Flamborough Head. Flamborough Head is a headland and along the same coastline are caves, arches and stacks. Towns and villages are constantly under threat from the sea. The coast needs to be managed to protect the settlements. During the cource Hornsea Hornsea is a town on the Holderness coastline that has nearly 3km of shoreline fronting the town. The coastline's position has been fixed since the coastal defences were put up which was in 1990s.
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There are four different dunes in a sand dune ecosystem that relate to the seres. * Embryo * Fore * Yellow * Grey Each of the seres shows differences due to their development thorough the succession process, however is can be hard to tell where each of the seres start due to their proximity to each other. The different seres all have individual properties with different types of vegetation, amounts of vegetation, types of wildlife and edaphic factors. Embryo Dune The species that grow here are determined by the abiotic factors which include wind, nutrient content, soil pH, soil salinity, soil humus and water content in the soil. This will vary in the different seasons.
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Long shore Drift My intentions are to carry out an investigation, which will determine the affects of longshore drift
'How does human management have an affect on the process of longshore drift?' I can expand on this question to create four sub-questions: What affects does longshore drift have on the managed coastline? What affects does longshore drift have on the unmanaged coastline? How do management techniques such as groynes affect longshore drift? What effects are there on the unmanaged section of the coastline? Method The methods below are to help me answer the purpose of the investigation. Field Sketches or Photos Equipment? Pencil and Paper and computer Method? * Simply involves annotating relevant sketches drawn by programs on computer.
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Bikini clad-girls flirted with any good-looking talent, who passed by, getting no positive response as boys pretended to look distracted. Nearby, some girls ran straight into the water only to find that it was freezing, which caused them to squeal and they rushed back out passing several families on the beach. Young children were being forced to put on sun-cream [which annoyed them a lot but they didn't have a choice] before they could go around doing different activities like donkey riding, playing football, jumping in the water, swimming, canoeing and attending the stalls for mini-games.
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If excessive grazing pressure continues, the loss of vegetation cover can result in soil erosion. OVER CULTIVATION Other commonly quoted ways in which human mismanagement causes desertification include "over cultivation", in which soil is exhausted by nutrient loss and erosion, the excessive clearance of vegetation, often for fuel wood, and poor management of irrigation schemes which results in salinization of soils. Over cultivation occurs due to the shortening of periods when the land is left free from cultivation ("fallow"), or from the use of mechanical techniques, which cause widespread loss of soil.
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The Hazards of Flight Jackie 10W Have you ever thought of gliding swiftly through the clouds and feel the warmth of the sun?
The rope was released from the basket and halted somewhere deep down in the valley, resulted in a bang, creating a rumble in a distance, however thunderous enough to be heeded within the mountains. Despite the jeopardy of being lifted up to the dense and growing cluster of clouds situated on the summit of the cliff, the pilots decided to risk and get over it. During a balloon flight all worst circumstances have to be overcome, especially where there are no other alternatives up in one thousand feet.
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"An investigation into the methods of coastal management along Brighton's Coastline and the reasons for them".
The coast is badly affected by many types of wave erosion. These all come from the effects of wave erosion deposition; sediment transportation and also deposition. Because of this, the waves are influenced by the coastline destructively. Longshore Drift:- In physical geography, longshore drift (LSD) refers to a process by which sediments move along a beach shoreline. The process arises when waves approach the shore obliquely (which in turn is determined by factors such as prevailing wind and fetch). Waves striking the shore at an angle as opposed to straight on will cause the wave swash to move up the beach at an angle.
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The Holderness Coastline is located near East Riding of Yorkshire. The coastline is Europe's fastest eroding coastline. This case study will explain the process and effects of the erosion taking place
The Holderness coast used to be covered with glacier sheets. When it defrosted, it left materials that are very soft and contain rich soil which makes it easy to erode. The two main rocks are chalk and boulder clay, the clay cliffs on the south are easily eroded compared to the more resistance chalk who were less affected by the destructive waves. The coastline is exposed to the destructive waves which travel across the largest fetch. These waves are created by prevailing winds from North-east which travel across a large fetch.
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A Beach In Winter Through Summer The warmth of the camp fire burning bright keeping me warm whilst winter gets its tight grip on everything
There is no one here. The days get shorter in winter, as if the sun felt like the kingdom he rules over has lost the will to live. The fire begins to stutter as if it's running out of words to say to me, I sit there longing for the warmth I had as a baby in my mother's womb, every so often I try to visualize the most welcoming place I can imagine. I begin to dream of a place where I could reach complete harmony.
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A Comparison Of Film Techniques Used To Depict The Omaha Landing "Saving Private Ryan" & "The Longest Day"
One film being filmed much nearer the battle itself. Firstly, Saving Private Ryan is in Multi-colour whereas The Longest Day was only made in black and white. In the opening scene of the Longest Day you enter onto Omaha Beach at 06:32 hours (whilst Beethoven's 5th Symphony plays in the background symbolising freedom as the story behind the music is good versus evil) with a Long Shot of the beach in screen and a nice sea view. You then focus in on the Germans talking amongst themselves (in german)
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* They are frequent waves, breaking at an average rate of between eleven and fifteen per minute. Constructive waves: * They are long in relation to their height * They break gently on the beach so that the swash carrying materials up the beach is stronger than the backwash carrying them away. * They break gently with between only six to nine waves per minute Method: First of all we chose a time at which we would start recording the results for the wave count; this was nearer to the end of the data collection trip.
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We had been planning a holiday for a year to our home country India. My father and mother still have relatives there and my brother and I have been several times when we were very young
My dad directed us to the check-in desk queue where we eventually managed to get our luggage weighed and our collected our boarding passes. Anyone would think that the airport would be empty at six thirty a.m., but no, people were everywhere frantically scurrying along trying to find their airline check-in desks. By the time our gate number had been shown we had wandered around the duty free shopping. There was not much of interest for my brother and I so we were glad to be traipsing off to the departure lounge.
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An anemometer which is sued to measure wind speed, air temperature and wind chill After measuring wind speed, we measured wind direction using a cloth at each location. This was recorded at the same time as the wind speed recordings. Measuring the wind speed and direction was an important part of this aim because the weather would have an effect on the waves and longshore drift. Longshore drift on the surface of the water was the next task; we took a plank of wood that measured 30cm x 30cm x 3cm and floated on water.
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We also recorded if the stone was a pebble, cobble, or boulder. Below is a diagram of how the positions were set out: LINE OF SEA WALL Position 1 Position 2 Position 5 Position 3 Position 4 POSITION OF SEA Results: Groyne Box 1- position 1 Stone number Axis length (mm) Angularity Stone type 1 38 Rounded Pebble 2 28 Rounded Pebble 3 26 Sub rounded Pebble 4 11 Very angular Pebble 5 23 Sub rounded Pebble 6 16 Sub rounded Pebble 7 16 Rounded Pebble 8 29 Sub rounded Pebble 9 28 Sub rounded Pebble 10 25 Very rounded Pebble Groyne Box 1- position 2 Stone number Axis length (mm)
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These weathering processes cause the calcium within the chalk (calcium carbonate compound) to dissolve and make the cliff retreat. Once the calcium has dissolved it is then the action of marine processes that have an effect. Marine processes affect the coast by moving material around, through transportation and deposition. There are five main ways in which sediment can be transport from one place to another. These include, traction, saltation, suspension, solution and long shore drift. Traction is the movement of sediment along the seabed; particles roll or slide without leaving the floor.
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It's the day before my birthday and we're going to the beach again. My Dad says today there will be 'more seals out today than anytime this year.'
My mother doesn't like this; she says my Dad is a 'bloody pig.' She wants me to have my birthday with her in England. It's the day before my birthday and we're going to the beach again. My Dad says today there will be 'more seals out today than anytime this year.' I don't understand this having never seen any seals at the beach before. 'Lazy, slippery seals' he says. 'Spending money and littering the beach. Still, good for business.'
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The vegetation present helps to stabilise the sand and to trap more sand. The formation of sand dunes - Tides form and storms deposit piles of seaweed and detritus. Amongst this are seeds and colonising plants. These seeds germinate and grow quickly, trapping sand that has been blown from lower down the beach. Over time these mounds of sand are colonised by Couch Grass giving a series of isolated embryo dunes along the top of the beach. As this is happening, a new drift line appears in front of these embryo dunes and this is colonised by pioneer species.
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The next stage, provided that the incipient dune is not destroyed as fast as it accumulates, is the colonisation by marram grass (Ammophilia arenaria). Marram grass possesses a deep branching system of roots which effectively bind the dune together. Furthermore, the plant itself only survives as long as a fresh supply of sand is constantly added to the dune. Once this supply of fresh sand ceases, the marram will die out and will be replaced by other species of plants. Other characteristic plants at the marram stage include sea-holly (Eryngjum maritimum), sea spurge (Euphorbia paralias), and sea sandwort (Arenaria pepliodes).
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