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AS and A Level: Coastal Landforms
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Creative writing - I, David Vivian-Currie, had been used to the upper-class life until I was forced to join the war through National Service.
At eleven o'clock the boat started to move, over the choppy English Channel, for some of us, this was the last time that we would ever see our homes. Overhead, it was possible to hear the jittering from the engines of the Spitfires and Lancaster's, above us. The aim of these planes was to bombard the landing spots around the coast, destroying any gun emplacements, the success of this raid, would decide the success of this invasion. I decided to sleep for a while as tomorrow would be one of the most important days of my live.
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In the early light there is nothing to be heard but singing birds and scuffling of rabbits through the underbrush. Big Sur is such a vast sanctuary because, the ninety-mile stretch of rocky coastline, winding from Carmel in the north to San Simeon in the south, it looks like a collective monastery of sorts, tucked into the heart of the West and devoted to solitude, wilderness, silence, and freedom from the hustle-bustle of hectic cities. Beaches, such as Pfeiffer, have wave cut arches, blow holes, and offshore sea stacks, while, up above, the mist races across slopes of sagebrush, rags of cloud getting caught in coast live oak and pine.
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The hard rock will be left sticking out forming headlands usually with cliffs. The softer rocks will be eroded to form bays. The erosion causes the bays usually to slope move gently inland, creating room for a beach to form. Beaches then do not stay in one position. The crashing of the waves causes the sand and shingle to move along the coast and gather at a single point, this process is known as longshore drift. A longshore drift is the movement of beach sediments along the shore.
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We also seen a few wave cut platforms and notches. Over the page is a list of what I identified at different points as erosional and depositional features. At Souter lighthouse I gained an excellent sketch of many of these (see sketch) The sketch shows an arch and a stack just off the coast, tide marks show where the water went up to. The arch was clearly made by hydraulic action. There was one quite large cave near a beach which we visited during high tide, when the water was at its highest which was quite rough.
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The expertise of being lazy is by no means an easy task to learn. It takes years of living in a hovel with nothing to do but watch Brookside and eat pork scratchings. Pork scratchings are partially to blame for the appalling teeth one can find on Bognorians. However made of pork fat and lard they are the ideal food for a lazy man. This forms a layer of blubber. Which acts as a yearlong jumper. A type of blubber you can find on a hippopotamus or male seal.
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Compare the expected measurements of moisture, pH and the amount of vegetation with the actual results around Noordwijk-aan-zee
Also the main problem was that when we prodded the stick into the ground, it may have dug in too deep where the ground was very dry. The model states that the amount of humus and the moisture levels shall start very low and then gradually get higher as we went further inland. The model was absolutely correct. The sand was parched at the start of the beach and then gradually got damper as we travelled further inland. Slacks were a very moist part of the sand dunes because it is literally a pool of excess water.
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What causes climatic differences around the Tropics and what impact does this have on people and the environment?
In Savannah grasslands winds are high as the air is cooler and rushing back to the equator. These areas experience varying pressure from low to high producing a wet season and a dry season at different intervals of the year. This causes the vegetation to die back in the dry season due to lack of precipitation and flourish as soon as the wet season arrives due to the fact that the plants have adapted themselves to do this. Outside of this area the Desert is located where conditions are harsh and vegetation rarely grows other than the cacti, which conserve water to survive.
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Will management of the Dunwich coastline and heath land improve the lifestyle of and the environment for the local people?
TM 476678. The National Trust purchased the Dunwich site in 1968 and was included in their 'Enterprise Neptune' scheme. Of the Suffolk Sandlings between Lowestoft and Ipswich, Dunwich heath and Minsmere Beach take up 5%, which equates to about 87 hectares. The coastline is 1.6km long. The cliffs are made of a sandy material. This composition is easily eroded. On average, the cliffs at Dunwich erode at a rate of 1 metre a year. (Fig G1) The area used to be used by man for resources. This includes cutting and burning heather, using the gorse for fencing and burning, and using the land for grazing.
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For a stretch of coastline you have studied, describe and explain the reasons for defending the coastline and evaluate the success of management strategies used.
The second reason is because of rotation slump because the cliffs are made up of permeable glacial deposits and impermeable clay. These two reasons are the main causes of cliff retreat at Overstrand and why this stretch of coastline needs defending. The cliffs at Overstrand are vulnerable to cliff foot processes, such as erosion by abrasion, attrition, hydraulic action and corrosion, caused by the destructive waves on the cliff.
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To find the height of the cliff we use a simple mathematical method called trigonometry. I will also compare the height of the cliff at various points with corresponding points along the beach. The volume of material removed from the cliff is found by doing a simple calculation using data already collected, see Fig xx. Volume Removed = Disappearing Cliff x Height Of Cliff To make sense of the data collected we consider some influencing factors and again compare with other parts of the beach.
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They generally break on the shore over ten times in a minute. Constructive waves are the opposite. They have a weak backwash thus causing little erosion, and have a strong swash pushing material up the beach. These waves are long and flat, they hold little power. They break less than ten times a minute in most cases. Flamborough is a sheltered bay and the waves are therefore focussed onto a smaller area. After collecting data on the beach profile, it was discovered that the beach has a defined shape. At the lower end of the beach nearer to the sea the beach is relatively flat.
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Formation of a wave. Fig 1. Constructive wave. Fig 2. Destructive wave. Fig 3. Above are two types of waves, constructive and destructive. Constructive waves only have limited energy, and most of it is used by the strong swash to transport the material up the beach. It has a weak backwash. Destructive waves have much more energy. The strong backwash to transport the material back down the beach uses most of this. Although it has a weak swash. Both weathering and erosion can alter the coastline.
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It provides an area of outstanding archaeological interest and for centuries it has been of great importance. There is evidence of Man's activities from the Old Stone Age through to relatively modern times. However, human settlement was said to have ended some fourteen hundred years before that of Bournemouth began. During the Iron Age it flourished, being one of the busiest ports in the country and has provided many archaeological finds such as the double dykes. Hengistbury Head is of considerable archaeological interest, with evidence of Iron Age and Roman settlement.
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Rock armour (rip rap) Built in 1997, many repairs since large interlocking boulders, �3500 per metre. Concrete revetment Sloping concrete wall, created to stop sea smashing up into the land in high, stormy and unpredictable weather. Costing �2000 per metre. Gabions Stones in wire basket with partial cover by sand and grass DAWLISH WARREN TOURISM: Tourism does well at Dawlish Warren; there are a variety of different shops for the tourists to explore like the coffee shops and the arcade, which can earn a lot of money from punters and the general public. Dawlish Warren is a big enough place the beach is pretty massive, so tourists are rarely cramped.
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It's also the time when you usually realise you forgot to do something, that's basically why I come here. As I look off down the beach I see the island as night approaches, in the distance the lights of hotels come on, the occasional car lights, the boats in the harbour turn their lights on and the lone cruise ship coming in lit up like a Christmas tree.
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An Investigation into Sediment Transport along a Beach and The Ways in Which Coastal Processes Such as Transport are Managed.
These graphs show the pebble sizes taken from sites 1 and 2. As you can see they are both different sets of results from one end of the beach to the other. Site 1 had a wide range of result from 1cm - over 30cms whereas site 2 has a lower range of results from 1cm - 19cms, this shows that site 2 (which is further up the beach) has smaller pebbles than site 1. These graphs show that the pebble shapes are very different between the sites.
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Examples of this can be seen all along the unmanaged section of the Naze. Hydrostatic pressure (Hydraulic action) Waves breaking onto the face of cliffs can exert large amounts of pressure. This has a huge impact on the joints and cracks in the cliff, as the pressure and speed of the waves forces air into the cracks and compresses it, followed by rapid air expansion as the wave subsides. This puts huge amounts of stress on the rocks and can cause large blocks to be pulled off the cliff, as well as smaller weathered fragments.
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Multi Sport Date Event Venue Contact Fri, 22nd Feb Aquathon (*) Jumeirah Beach Club Mihail 050 7944190 Mon, 25th Feb Triathlon (*) Al Jazira Triathlon 1km - 26km - 7km Guy Anderson 050 695 7948 Fri, 8th March Race 3 DTC Olympic Distance Triathlon (*)
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Fortunately for Jonathan, Hugo was still at the top and just as nervous as the paranoid Jonathan who was now completely motionless on the cliff face. The rope suddenly gave way; Jonathan's waist jolted backwards as soon as the strain was released. Jonathan grabbed out frantically, clasping onto whatever he laid his hands on. He finally got hold of a crag worthy of his weight. Jonathan's mind was still blank with fear. He was now clinging on with one hand, staring into the bleak mixture of low cloud and the jagged rock face.
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It is the term used to describe the area around a town or city that influences people to visit. People will from the edge of the sphere of influence to the town for many different reasons. A few examples are to shop, work or socialise in that particular place. In order to find out exactly how far people will travel to reach and spend time in Swanage I used two different fieldwork methods. Firstly the car park survey, and secondly the questionnaire. The date of my visit was the 13th of June and the weather was glorious. There was only minimal cirrus cloud in the sky which meant the cloud cover rated as ?.
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This would reduce erosion. Many people thought that Mappleton should just be allowed to disappear into the sea, however it is very difficult to express this. Groynes are very expensive to make and last for approximately ten years. Even though these can look ugly, the beach 'collected' does absorb more energy. The cliffs of Mappleton are also made up of clay and sand and the waves can wash this away very easily. This is why Mappleton have also invested in a sea wall to add extra defence from the waves.
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We did this to give us the relevant information to be able to carry out the rest of the experiment. Before we could do the actual experiment we needed to know what was the most common seaweed to be able to study its distribution. * Scan the beach for a suitable area to test, i.e. no large obstacles, enough seaweed to record etc. Preferably not next to a groyne. Any of these factors will greatly affect the results. The experiment is only taking account of the biotic factors and so does not need to include these.
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What different kinds of coastal protection are there along the coast of Norfolk, andwhat do they depend on?
Also, as the name suggests, destructive waves drag material from the beach back into the sea, reducing the length/height of the beach. Long shore drift is when the waves come in at an angle, and go back out straight (perpendicular to the beach), taking the beach material with it. Long Shore Drift changes the coastline because it moves the material across the beach. This happens repeatedly to drag the material further and further down the coastline. Erosion Erosion is the gradual destruction of land by natural and un-natural forces, e.g.
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This could affect the different sorts of species that live in certain sections of the beach. We will record 200 separate results in each section of the beach (two line transects each with 100 results.). To generate reliable and accurate evidence, we will be cautious to record the right results for each mark along the transects. The transects will be carried out on the same day, and hopefully under the same weather conditions The line transects will be taken from random points in each sector. Then the variety of creature will be recorded at every 10 centimetres along the line.
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It is an unequal recession with most of the erosion happening towards the middle of the cliffs. The least erosion has happened in the northeast and the southwest at an average of 36m over 70 years. 4a. At site one, the sea wall, the gradient of the beach is 0?; this is the smallest gradient. It lies 4.7m from the sea wall. The average pebble roundness is 3, or sub angular. The average pebble size is 28.5mm. At site 2, defence, the gradient of the slope is 12? downwards and the slope is 5.3m long. This is the largest gradient.
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