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AS and A Level: Hazardous Environments

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  1. Preparation of media and reagents & aseptic technique and pure culture

    Since the ingredients and glassware employed in the preparation of media can contain unwanted microorganisms, freshly prepared media must be sterilized (e.g. autoclaving or filtration) immediately. An autoclave is essentially a large pressure cooker that heats the media to a temperature of 121 �C by injecting steam under pressure into the autoclave chamber. The pressure prevents the media from boiling at the elevated temperature. Filtration is carried out by using 0.2 �m membrane filters. This is necessary as some media ingredients (such as antibiotics)

    • Word count: 2900
  2. Osaka Kobe Earthquake

    Osaka city and Kobe are both connected, Most of Osaka bay is industrial the rest is commercial. Map of Osaka-Kobe region There are many challenges facing the Osaka-Kobe region. These can be divided into physical and human challenges. One physical challenge is that Japan is located at a destructive plate margin which has created more than 80 volcanoes, a lot of highland and steep mountains and cause earth quakes, this makes building very difficult.

    • Word count: 323
  3. MONTESERATT-ASE STUDY

    A faint plume of ash blew westward. - On July 28 again, there was a slightly more violent plume of smoke seen heading westward - On the 5th of September, the volcano produced a minor eruption drifting the smoke north west - On November 19th, the volcano produced a larger eruption after previous minor activity in the previous months Part 2: Before the severe eruption in 1995, Montserrat was an island of tranquillity, friendship and charm.

    • Word count: 483
  4. It is logical to think that the hazards impact depends on a countries level of development. For example, a hazard in a MEDC might cause huge amounts of damage because of the costs of buildings there

    Certain MEDCs that experience frequent earthquakes try to make their buildings 'earthquake-proof'. Examples include Japan, and San-Francisco in America. The Oct. 17, 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake occurred in the least-populated area of the generally urban San Francisco peninsula. Construction standards in the area are relatively high, and the populace relatively prepared. However, soft, highly-saturated soils near San Francisco Bay caused some spectacular failures of large highway structures unusually far away from the event. Even though it was rush hour, many fewer cars were on the roads due to the start of the opening game of the World Series, being played locally.

    • Word count: 699
  5. Title : The Determination of Microbial Numbers Objectives:Practically every phase of microbiology requires method for measuring microbial numbers. Study the theoretical relationship of one bacterial cell, or clump of cells.

    The result that we can get from the plate A is 40 colonies. The dilution factor of plate A is at 10-4. Those colonies observed are present in a form of circular whitish as appearance with a small degree of overcrowding at several regions around of the plate. However, the rest of the dilution factor plate of sample gave too little colonies which are unacceptable range according to the viable count theory. Therefore, colonies that form surrounding the perimeter of the plate are impossible to measure.

    • Word count: 2570
  6. Despite the risk, why do people continue to live near volcanoes

    People who live there also have houses, and moving away from them is not a pleasant idea due to the fact of your home being a settlement of your own feelings and bought from your own wealth. However, there are also positive consequences. Many peoples around the world continue to live near volcanoes because the eruptions produce wonderful soil for growing crops. Most of the surface of the North American continent itself was produced by the eruption of volcanoes over millions of years.

    • Word count: 686
  7. Can Human Innovation Greatly Minimise The Impact Of Earthquakes?

    per year (a similar rate to which finger nails grow). This action normally causes small tremors, but sometimes the rocks can't stand the enormous stress put on them by this process. As they force their way past each other an enormous amount of violent energy is released usually causing an earthquake. The infrastructure of a society is a number of things that can make an environment a safe and functional place to be. The services, roads, railways, bridges, factories and schools all form the infrastructure with perhaps the services being the most important.

    • Word count: 1161
  8. Are Volcanoes friends or foes of human beings?

    When pressure builds up inside the Earth, the volcano erupts - and this molten rock is exposed. The rock is called magma while it's inside the earth and lava once it comes out of the volcano. (The fragments of volcanic rock and lava in an eruption are also referred to as tephra.) Lava's basic components are oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, titanium and manganese. Often a volcanic eruption is explosive - with clouds of lava fragments shooting into the air and a pyroclastic flow rushing down the sides of the volcano.

    • Word count: 1035
  9. Why did so many people die in the 1995 Kobe Earthquake?

    The size of the earthquake caused buildings to collapse which meant the people within them perished, many of the older buildings were built with concrete roofs and the majority which were built before 1960 collapsed along with the wooden framed buildings. As the earthquake hit, gas pipes underneath the ground were hit by the tremors, this set off fires throughout the city. Due to all the buildings that had collapsed, emergency services could not reach the victims with ease, they either could not reach some of the survivors or had to take a long diversion to get to them another way.

    • Word count: 651
  10. Knowledge of plate tectonics does not just help in understanding many geographical processes and features but also in managing

    The only other option is to look for the early warning signs s, for volcanoes these are small earthquakes that signal that magma is rising that's causes cracks in the earths crust and volcanic gases such as sulphur are released from vents and from the crater. To monitor these changes in the volcano, seismometers are used to detect any movement of the earth, thermal imaging can observe temperatures around the volcano and report any rise over normal, gas samples are taken and chemical sensors are used to measure sulphur levels, if they are higher then an eruption is probable.

    • Word count: 779
  11. The first will be about Health and Safety at Graham School. The second will be about Health and Safety at Scarborough Sixth Form College and the last will be about Health and Safety at CP Kelco's Knowsley Plant. The aims of this report

    Accidents in the places where scientists work are rare. This is because scientists must follow strict regulations and procedures. These are aimed, successfully are reducing the risk of harming or damaging themselves or people near to them in the workplace. Hazards and scientific place include: * Careless behaviour. * Not using equipment properly. * Not using protective and safety equipment. * Not following correct Health and Safety at Graham School Risk Assessments The risk assessments they have at Graham School and Scarborough Sixth Form are given have eleven headings.

    • Word count: 3038
  12. "Danger to human populations from environmental events is both increasing and decreasing." Human populations all over the world are in danger from environmental events

    Some of the environmental events that are increasing in frequency include heat waves, droughts, bushfires and floods. This is due to increased temperatures and intensified weather patterns such as El Nino events, which occur as a result of global warming. Rising temperatures have also increased monsoon conditions and therefore the spread of waterborne diseases and malaria from breeding insects. Some of these events are also becoming more severe, increasing the danger to human populations throughout the world. Environmental events that have been decreasing in frequency over the years include; insect and vermin plagues, viruses and epidemics, and exotic animal diseases.

    • Word count: 740
  13. Underground Australia" (6August 2005) from New Scientist is an interesting and striking scientific article about the fauna in the underground area of Australia. The article's field is biology

    The article can tell me why in Australia-such an arid area can be a destination for stygofauna. That's because underground Australia are hundreds of limestone deposits honeycombed with small holes filled with water, which are the ideal places for the stygofauna. The article also describes how these creatures look like which is really amazing, enriching and interesting to know: eyeless, no pigmentation and wings, flattened, flexible bodies...etc.

    • Word count: 591
  14. OUTLINE THE EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT THE THEORIES OF PLATE TECTONICS & CONTINENTAL DRIFT

    170m years ago 100m years ago 50m years ago Earth Today In 1620 Francis Bacon first realised that there was a resemblance between the west coast of Africa and the east coast of South America and he believed that these continents had once fit together like a jigsaw. Bacon's theory was not taken seriously and had many problems due to the fact that it was only based on Bacon's own vision of the world and the different continents. His theory was too subjective and it was difficult to prove.

    • Word count: 1115
  15. Prediction of volcanic eruptions

    Many advances have been made in the study of volcanoes particularly in eruption prediction. The problem with volcanoes is that, though there may be similarities between volcanoes, every volcano behaves differently and has its own set of hazards. By studying how, and why volcanoes occur and erupt without warning will produce information which further the study of predicting volcanoes. That is why it's important for scientists to study and monitor volcanoes. Techniques to predict volcanic eruptions Changes in ground level: Tilt meters have long been used to study active volcanoes by monitoring their changing shape and steepness before and during eruptions.

    • Word count: 935
  16. Natural disasters are happening more often, and having an ever more dramatic impact on the world in terms of both their human and economic costs. While the number of lives lost has declined in the past 20 years - 800,000

    While the number of lives lost has declined in the past 20 years - 800,000 people died from natural disasters in the 1990s, compared with 2 million in the 1970s - the number of people affected has risen. Over the past decade, the total affected by natural disasters has tripled to 2 billion. Some 75 percent of the world's population live in areas that have been affected at least once by either an earthquake, a tropical cyclone, flooding or drought between 1980 and 2000.

    • Word count: 1414
  17. It was a beautiful day like any other with the clear blue sky and the nice cool breeze chilling my morning tea. Everything was peace and quiet until I felt my chair shaking. I saw the tea water moving and my little round

    Nervous became fear as I ran to warn my parents. But, when I reached them, the earthquake stopped. Nothing happened in the next few hours. My family and I were safe and our house was still standing. We watched the news and it was reported an earthquake had occurred and its epicentre was very close to Muzzafarabad. We felt very lucky to be in the city of Kashmir. We watched the incident in the city and thought that what we had was just the slightest taste of the earthquake in Muzzafarabad.

    • Word count: 514
  18. To what extent is the human response to hazards affected by variations in economic resources available

    The USGS National Earthquake information center is reported a magnitude of 6.6 for the quake, which was located just southwest of the city. About 60 percent of the buildings in Bam were destroyed. The old quarter and a 2,000-year-old citadel (severely damaged by the earthquake) were built primarily of mud brick. As we well know Iran is a LEDC (less economically developed country) and therefore does not have huge amounts of money to invest in stronger more earthquake proof buildings.

    • Word count: 1864
  19. A knowledge of plate tectonics does not just help in understanding many geographical processes and features but also in managing them. How far do you agree with this view?

    As the plates move apart, faults form and the fractures are widened by tension. Magma is forced up these fissures by convection currents and reaches the surface as lava. The volcanoes that are found on constructive boundaries are shield volcanoes, for example, Mauna Loa in Hawaii. The magma is derived from the planet's mantle and is quite free flowing. The lava formed from this magma, usually basalt, and flows for some distance over the surface before it sets, this gives the volcano a slightly sloped shape, there is also less pyroclastic material (ash, lava bombs etc).

    • Word count: 1542
  20. Levels of development affect the ability to manage natural hazards. Discuss this statement in relation to two types of natural hazards. A natural hazard is an event that occurs without the influence of man

    This is as they both effect locations differently as they are both different types of hazards. An earthquake is a tectonic hazard and a hurricane is a climatic hazard. Levels of development affect the ability to manage a hurricane as the more development there is, the harder it is to control the affect of the hurricane. This is as the more development there is, the more chance of the hurricane causing a bigger affect. An example of this is Hurricane Katrina.

    • Word count: 713
  21. Hurricanes occur in MEDC's (More Economically Developed Countries) and in LEDC's (Less Economically Developed Countries). They affect both areas however; both areas react and respond to them in different ways using different resources and aid sources

    As a hurricane approaches, the skies begin to darken and the winds grow stronger. The hurricane can bring torrential rains, high winds, and storm surge as it comes close to land. A single hurricane can last more than two weeks. An earthquake is a shaking movement of the earth's surface. It results from faults. The earth's surface is in continuous slow motion. This is plate tectonics - the movement of rigid plates at the surface of the earth in response to flow of rock within the earth. These plates cover the whole surface of the earth.

    • Word count: 1109
  22. Lithography is a form of Planographic printing which is used mainly for commercial printing due to the high speed and low cost

    The entire process is based on the way water and grease does not mix. The actual image attracts the grease (the ink) while the areas left blank attract water and therefore reject the ink. Only four colours are used; yellow, cyan, magenta and black, filters separate the colours into tiny dots which make up the picture.

    • Word count: 266
  23. In 1989 an earthquake hit San Francisco, on the west coast of USA, killing around 200 people. Twelve years later an earthquake hit Gujarat, in India. This time it killed approximately 30,000 people.

    Another follows the west coast of North and South of America and then goes all the way round the edge of the Pacific Ocean to New Zealand. Earthquakes occur when two plates suddenly jolt past each other, which produces shock waves called 'Seismic Waves' An Earthquakes focus is the point at where the waves started, an Earthquakes epicenter is the point directly above it on the Earths surface, an Earthquakes magnitude is the amount of energy it gives out and the Richter Scale is a scale of measuring the magnitude.

    • Word count: 833
  24. kobe earthquake

    Major earthquakes and volcanoes eruptions take place at these plate boundaries. Japan is at the boundary of three plates. It is located were the pacific and the Philippians plates move towards the Eurasian plate. As the two plates meet the Eurasian plate they are forced downwards and under the Eurasian plate. The movement has resulted in lots of earthquakes and volcanoes all over the country killing many people and destroying much land and crops.

    • Word count: 349
  25. What Is Seismology??

    However, the large mass tends to stay still, so the drum shakes beneath the pen, recording a squiggle! The confiner prevents the mass from bouncing around all over the place. What Are The Different Types Of Seismic Waves? There are several different kinds of seismic waves, and they all move in different ways. The two main types of waves are body waves and surface waves. Body waves can travel through the earth's inner layers, but surface waves can only move along the surface of the planet like ripples on water. Earthquakes radiate seismic energy as both body and surface waves.

    • Word count: 1253

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