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AS and A Level: Hazardous Environments

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  1. What Is Seismology??

    However, the large mass tends to stay still, so the drum shakes beneath the pen, recording a squiggle! The confiner prevents the mass from bouncing around all over the place. What Are The Different Types Of Seismic Waves? There are several different kinds of seismic waves, and they all move in different ways. The two main types of waves are body waves and surface waves. Body waves can travel through the earth's inner layers, but surface waves can only move along the surface of the planet like ripples on water. Earthquakes radiate seismic energy as both body and surface waves.

    • Word count: 1253
  2. Types of asbestos and Asbestos-related diseases.

    Fibres ultimately form because when these minerals originally cooled and crystallized, they formed by the polymeric molecules lining up parallel with each other and forming oriented crystal lattices. These crystals thus have three cleavage planes as other minerals and gemstones have. But in their case, there are two cleavage planes that are much weaker than the third direction. Thus when sufficient force is applied they tend to break along their weakest directions, resulting in a linear fragmentation pattern and hence a fibrous form.

    • Word count: 1342
  3. How Can Natural Disasters Be Avoided, or

    Close examination of the boundaries between tectonic plates can indicate the build-up and intensification of tension at convergent plate boundaries. While it is impossible to predict exactly when an earthquake will happen, scientists can utilise seismic data to forewarn people that such an event is expected to occur. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has established tsunami warning stations in the United States, and twenty-six Pacific countries have jointly created their own warning system that monitors the ocean floor using data collection buoys.

    • Word count: 1240
  4. Chromatography assignment

    5. Two or more samples may be applied to each plate if they are kept one cm apart. Mark the position of the spots lightly in PENCIL and be sure to keep a record of which spot represents each product. Development of the TLC plates 1. Prepare a developing chamber by adding 15-20 ml of solvent 2. Place the TLC plates in the chamber so that they do not touch. Allow the solvent to rise to within one cm of the top of the plates. 3. Remove the plates, mark the solvent front using pencil, and allow them to dry.

    • Word count: 1110
  5. Wise Children Essay

    and can also help the reader to relate and empathise with Dora and Nora's position. The novel does not follow a chronological timeline, but is a non-linear narrative jumping back and forth between what is happening on the twin's 75th birthday and events that have taken place in the past. The first main event in the novel is the arrival of the invitation to Melchior Hazards birthday party, not only does it introduce some action, but also other characters into the play and allows Carter to tell the reader some information on Dora's situation, that Melchior Hazard is her father and who 'Wheelchair' is.

    • Word count: 1029
  6. Tsunami - 26/12/04 - Causes, impact, and management

    Causes The devastating tsunami was caused by an earthquake with a magnitude of 9.0 on the Richter scale and was estimated to have released the energy of 23,000 Hiroshima atomic bombs. The epicentre of the earthquake was under the Indian Ocean near the west coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The violent movement of sections of the Earth's crust, known as tectonic plates, displaced an enormous amount of water, sending powerful shock waves in every direction. The earthquake was caused by the sliding of the India plate under the section called the Burma plate which is called a destructive plate boundary.

    • Word count: 1005
  7. Why do LEDC's Suffer Greater Damage From Earthquakes Than MEDC's

    This can be done by reinforcing the bridges and by starting to make earthquake proof buildings. Also, the government could give out information of what to do if an earthquake strikes. This could be posted to each person's house explaining the key steps involved. In comparison, as LEDC's do not have as much money, they cannot afford to spend money on earthquake precautions. Therefore, LEDC's have poor quality building and precaution methods, whereas MEDC's have sophisticated building and prediction and prevention methods.

    • Word count: 1516
  8. Discuss the view that geomorphological processes such as weathering, mass movement and those resulting from volcanic and earthquake activity cannot be managed but merely adapted to.

    This leads to the process of exfoliation in which the outer layers of rock are peeled away. Biological weathering operates only at local scale and is when the roots of plants and trees together with the work of burrowing animals help contribute to the disintegration of rock. Chemical weathering is the dominant type of weathering worldwide and is most associated with areas of a hot wet climate such as the tropics. In these areas heavy rainfall can cause the unstable minerals (mainly silica)

    • Word count: 1243
  9. Geomorphological hazards at a variety of scales should always be considered when planning the location of the settlement and economic activity. Discuss.

    It can be reasonably safe to live in areas near constructive margins and hot spots where volcanoes emit basaltic lava. Although this greatly depends upon the severity of the volcanoes and also the warning and protection techniques used by the areas authorities. For example in Eldfell in 1963, the amount of damage caused was greatly reduced by careful planning and awareness of the proposed hazard. So that when the volcano did erupt there was time to evacuate the inhabitants and also to restrict the lava flow by cooling it with sea water.

    • Word count: 957
  10. Management of mass movements : Managing landslide hazards

    Landslide hazard assessment maps are ways of predicting the landslide threat using the factors, which influence slope stability. However, forecasting the magnitude and frequency of events is not possible. There may be problems in this approach in already developed areas, where a high hazard rating may reduce land values. Sharing the loss Private insurance for landslide hazards is not easily available due to the high risks involved for the insurance companies. Legal liability is becoming an increasingly common loss-sharing adjustment.

    • Word count: 726
  11. Volcanic Eruptions : Monserrat

    Climate- Tropical, little daily or seasonal temperature variation. Exports- Plastic bags, hot peepers, cattle, live plants Imports- Fuels, manufactured goods, lubricants Natural Hazards- Severe hurricanes (June to November); volcanic eruptions (full scale eruptions of the Soufriere Hills volcano occurred during 1996-97). Eruptions and what happened July 1995 After 350 years of non-activity, Chances peak erupts.

    • Word count: 341
  12. The San Francisco Earthquake

    It was already light, 5:18am I noticed by the hall clock. We hurriedly dressed and went outside where we found most of our neighbors talking excitedly. Our immediate reaction was one of relief that our broken chimneys had not come through the roof. Our house and the other frame houses in our area appeared to have withstood the quake except for the chimneys. Someone pointed to the southeast, and we saw a heavy column of smoke rising from downtown. I left for work but had to walk, as no streetcars were running.

    • Word count: 658
  13. "Poor countries are more at risk from natural hazards than rich countries" How far do you agree with this statement?

    This is partly due to the fact that LEDCs often do not have the capital to invest in 'up-to-date' prediction and monitoring technology. They may even have a poor education system because of restricted capital, meaning that there are very few specialists in the country with the knowledge of hazards needed to prepare for them. Even in countries such as Mozambique that has modern and hi-tech meteorology prediction equipment, communication is often a problem. Poor infrastructure means that information about impending hazards does not always reach those who are to be affected, leaving little time to prepare or evacuate.

    • Word count: 1299
  14. Turkey Earthquake

    This gap was first noted by Toksoz, Shakal, and Michael in 1979 and it's hazard was later analyzed by Stein, Barka, and Dieterich in 1997. The latter paper estimated that there was a 12% chance of this earthquake occurring in the 30 years from 1996 to 2026. The Cause The earthquake originated at a shallow depth of about 10.5 miles (17 km) and generated strong ground motion (and moderate to high accelerations) in a zone along the Gulf of Izmit of the Sea of Marmara to east of Adapazari.

    • Word count: 920
  15. Evidence for Plate Tectonics.

    When he added the northern continents to the puzzle, Wegener realized that the chain of Appalachian Mountains in North America continued as the Caledonian Mountains in northern Europe. To explain these data, Wegener proposed the theory of continental drift in his book The Origins of the Continents and the Oceans, published in German in 1915. His theory stated that all of the continents had originally been joined together in a super continent called Pangaea. About 200 million years ago, the theory continued, Pangaea broke apart and the continents slowly drifted to their present positions.

    • Word count: 1035
  16. The Structure of the Earth-

    The mantle is much denser than the crust (which is why the crust floats on top) and has a texture much like tar. The rock in this region is rich in compounds made from iron, magnesium, and silicon, which accounts for why it is denser than the crust. The Core: This region is divided into two parts. The outer part is called the Outer Core. It is about 2100km thick and made of liquid nickel and iron. The inner part is called the Inner Core and it is the real centre of the Earth. This part is about 2800km in diameter and is made of solid iron and nickel.

    • Word count: 575
  17. Super Volcanoes

    Super volcanoes produce vast amounts of ash and destruction. There are thousands of normal volcanoes around the world and at least 50 erupt every year. Vast clouds of ash are deafening sounds; it affects the climate on earth for many years and affects the agriculture colour. At yellow stone, if the substance is plunged into catastrophe, this means that humans could become distinct. Super volcanoes cause unimaginable forces and affect everything in ways that humans cannot begin to imagine. There are many pieces of evidence that prove that Super volcanoes do exist.

    • Word count: 981
  18. Earthquakes are perhaps one of natures most breathtaking, yet deadly and destructive wonders.

    The earth is composed ultimately of three layers; from the outer crust of surface as it is commonly known, the mantle below the surface right through to the hot molten centre, known as the core, where rocks burn at temperatures upwards of 7000 �C (diagram 2) . The crust is a thin hard layer of rock, which is split into 15 parts known as crustal plates and these float around on the mantle (diagram 3). The mantle is a hotter, denser and ultimately softer layer than the surface and this allows the crustal plates some movement.

    • Word count: 2055
  19. The focus of this paper will be the Queen Charlotte Islands earthquake of 1949.

    This earthquake caused shaking so severe that people could not stand up and cows were knocked off their feet. It was also reported that chimneys crumpled, windows shattered, cars bounced around and buildings swayed throughout the affected area (The Geological Survey of Canada, 2000). Since the epicentre of the earthquake did not occur directly in a populous city with numerous buildings, there were no deaths recorded during the event. Figure 1: The effects of the 8.1 magnitude Queen Charlotte Islands earthquake in 1949 (The Geological Survey of Canada, 2000). Physical Conditions Southwest British Columbia is the most active earthquake region in Canada.

    • Word count: 2679
  20. "Why did so many people die in the Kobe earthquake?"

    on the 17th of January, 1995 the huge earthquake struck measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale. It was Japans largest earthquake since the one that hit Tokyo in 1923! Seismic waves (travelling waves of energy) moved towards the surface and disturbed buildings, roads, bridges, sewage systems and main supplies of water, electricity and gas. Why? The earthquake happened because the Eurasian, Philippine Sea and Pacific tectonic plates (sections of the earth's crust which float on mantle) were all moving towards each other, which created friction when they gradually met at the plate boundaries. This made lots of pressure build up, then suddenly part of the plates gave way causing huge energy waves to be released and spread from the focus point (the place where it gave way)

    • Word count: 1496
  21. At what points in this novel do you feel its author is breaking out of realist modes of story telling into the realms of fantasy?

    He himself is portrayed as a travelling carnival. These qualities are evident throughout his life as he introduces Dora and Nora to the magic of his phonograph; "as astonishing as if it were another of his tricks," to the time he magically "with one swift pass of his hand" removed "a scarlet macaw" from Melchiors tights, and to extend his role as the magician he then, like a performer "rose up and bowed to...every section of the audience." He is one character in which Carter most certainly breaks out of realism in to strange realms of fantasy.

    • Word count: 1307
  22. Investigate the rate of which lava flows down the side of a volcano and what affects the rate of which it flows.

    I think this because the higher the angle gets the more gravitational potential energy (GPE) will be acting on the lava. So what is GPE well it is a type of energy that is stored in an object because of its height through which it has been lifted against the force of gravity. If it falls down we know that it has got gravitational potential energy. So it will be forced down the slope at a higher force. GPE is linked to kinetic energy. GPE that is acting on the lava can make it move because the GPE is changed in to kinetic energy we know that it is changed because we cannot create or destroy energy.

    • Word count: 1163
  23. Multiple Hazards in Cities: Examples from London, Mexico City and Los Angeles

    As a result the pollution in London dropped dramatically and continued Throughout the 80's. However the smog's returned in he 90's, but rather due to industry it was due to the large number of vehicles in London. The government attempted to reduce he pollution levels in a number of ways; * Variable speeds on the M25 to reduce traffic jams * Pedestrianisation of shopping areas * The reintroduction of trams between Croydon and Wimbledon. The levels of groundwater in London have been an issue, mainly due to over extraction since the 1940's.

    • Word count: 2016
  24. The work and life of Alfred Wegener

    After the war, Wegener returned to Marburg, but became irritated with his lack of promotion within his field. In 1924 he accepted a specially created professorship in meteorology and geophysics at the University of Graz, in Austria. Wegener made what was to be his last expedition to Greenland in 1930. While returning from a rescue expedition that brought food to a party of his colleagues camped in the middle of the Greenland icecap, he died, two days after his fiftieth birthday.

    • Word count: 724
  25. Natural disasters in Australia and their effects

    A trigger, such as solar heating can then begin the development of a thunderstorm. Strong upward currents of air develop. As the air is carried upwards quickly water droplets in the air condense to form rain. These raindrops can turn into hail. When these rain drops reach high levels they freeze, forming hail stones. These hail stones then grow steadily in size as they are carried up and down by strong currents of air. Hail stones larger than tennis balls have been recorded in Australia. Hail can also occur when a cyclone forms. Cyclones are formed near the equator.

    • Word count: 623

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