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AS and A Level: Rocks & Weathering
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The first process or cycle that affects the formation of the land is that of frost action or cryofacturing. Frost action is a broad term to describe processes such as Freeze Thaw and other smaller processes associated with this form of weathering. One aspect of this freezing process is that of shattering. This is the process where the mechanics of weathering breaks down the rock due to the atmospheric conditions that surround it. The process freezes the water in the rock expanding the ice to leave the rock fractured or even cracked.
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Can Geologists Save the Planet? Geologists have made many discoveries in the past and continue to today at an ever-increasing rate.
The first recorded person to discover any geological concepts was Herodotus (500BC). He observed how the Nile deposited silt, but he believed that most features of the earth were formed as a result of short but violent processes. It was not until the 4th Century BC that Aristotle made his observations, that these geological features were in fact the result of change over vast amounts of time.
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The minerals that are provided by the parent material erode at different rates and use different processes of weathering. Other impacts that the parent material has on the soil type is the soils depth, texture, permeability and the soils nutrient content, as well as this, the parent material also has an impact on the soils colour. Another large factor that can affect soil is the climate. The climate of the area, determines the soil type on a larger global scale then other factors. Climate also determines vegetation cover which in turn influences soil development. The climate can affect the rate of the parents rock erosion, in a hot humid environment, the parent rock would have a rapid breakdown, resulting in soil being formed in a considerably shorter timescale.
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The coarse material scratches the surface and the finer material polishes the surface. The material caught in the glacier is eroded into a fine rock flour which gives glacial melt water its milky appearance. 6b) Assess the relative importance of the factors influencing rates of glacial erosion. There are several factors affecting the rates of glacial erosion including: presence of basal debris, debris size and shape, relative hardness of particles and bedrock, ice thickness and the velocity of ice. Though a very important factor in erosion not all glaciers have a lot of basal debris.
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It is also long lasting and stands up well to exposure. However, it is a very heavy material, making it impractical for tall buildings, and relatively expensive as a building material. Physical Properties of Limestone Hardness 3 to 4 on Mohs Scale (out of 10) Density 2.5 to 2.65 Kg/m3 Compressive Strength 1800 to 2100 Kg/cm2 Water Absorption Less than 1% Porosity Quite low Weather Impact Resistant Stepping pyramid build of limestone Limestone landscape also called Karst is a unique landscape formed by the underground erosion of rocks such as limestone and marble that dissolve in water.
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So roads and railway lines can be constructed, linking major towns together. For example the A591, which is the main road through the Lake District, follows a glacial trough. The Penrith to Cockermouth railway, now dismantled, followed glacial valleys. So glacial valleys can provide natural routeways however they do have a disadvantage to transport. It is very difficult to find a routeway between parallel valleys, so if two settlements are in parallel valleys, it is likely that to connect the two it would mean going round the valley. Tourism is hugely affected by glacially eroded landforms.
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Erosion and weathering Scree: lime stone tends to erode along the joints due to freeze thaw, this causes the parts to break off and fall to the bottom of the rock face to join the rest of the scree. Terraces: Limestone terraces are exposed bedding planes. Terraces are formed when limestone is eroded along joints and bedding planes on the scarp slope. Blocks of limestone are removed leaving the terracing. Limestone pavements: Where limestone outcrops at the top a hill, limestone pavements will form.
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A figure that is set to rise within the next five years, following the recent government spending policy. This policy has outlined plans to put �180 billion into improving roads, hospitals and schools, to all of which limestone will be a necessity. However there is only so much limestone you can take out of the hills, mountains and idyllic countryside's of Britain before you cause irreversible damage and disfigurement to the landscape. Many of the current and planned quarries stand upon national parks, areas of outstanding natural beauty that are visited by thousands of people every year.
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Sandstone - It has more than 1 mineral as there are different particles visible, it's very grainy and it feels hard although you can crumble some off if you rub hard. Basalt - It has more than 1 mineral, it is very hard and it also looks very hardwearing. Mudstone - It has 1 mineral, it is quite smooth, it feels very dusty and muddy, if you rub the rock moderately it will start to crumble. Also it is not very rough or hardwearing.
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Why Is It Important As A Building Material? Limestone is very popular in architecture. Limestone is readily available and it is relatively easy to cut in specific shapes or blocks or even for more extensive and elaborate carving in which there is precision design. It is also long-lasting and it is still tough even in exposure. Limestone used for construction is also good in humid and hot environments. What Are The Drawbacks Of Using It In Buildings?
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It mostly contains calcium carbonate as seashells are made from calcium carbonate. It is usually white or grey in colour. The original shells are mainly crushed down how some fossilised shells can still be found in limestone. Mudstone, which is also known as shale, is formed from mud. Mud is basically finer particles of sand cemented together due to heat and pressure. Mudstone is often grey in colour and unlike other rocks; it tends to split onto its original layers very easily. Coal is a fossil fuel formed from the remains of plants and vegetation.
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One major factor is walker's boots because they kick away and break down the surface but this is by means no means the only factor. It is not only the walkers that cause the erosion the bike and the heavy footfall of fell runners who can also break the ground up. It is not only human impact that makes the footpaths wear down, the livestock has been a primary source of some of the most serious surface on the surface because there feet break down the surface
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One of the main factors that is involved in the creation of soil is parent material. As I said early this is where soil develops from an underlying rock. The rock type usually makes a large difference to the soils colour, depth, texture, drainage and mineral content (nutrients) thus resulting in a difference of different soil qualities. Another one of the five main factors is the climate in which the soil resides. Climate determines the type of soil at a global scale. The distribution of world soil types corresponds closely to patterns of climate and vegetation.
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I think that I am most likely to find Sedimentary rocks that will be in recurring cyclotherms containing a lot of fossils and other structures, and that have also been affected by a lot of faulting and folding. To collect the data for the items I have outlined above, I will go to the beach and construct a sedimentary log. I have already tested this method on another beach in the same area as Cocklawburn beach, at a area called Cullernose point This log will encompass most of the data that I will need to collect, however I will also
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There were a number of deep cracks and at the bottom was some debris and fallen rocks. At one side of the quarry there was a dipping bed. The angle recorded was approximately 15�. There were a few trees and some plants growing on the rocks. As previously stated the rocks at this position were limestone, with a high calcium carbonate content. In addition to this there was chert present; there were visible hard, white bands of silica. The dip and strike was taken at the dip at this position. It was calculated to be 060/15�/North-North West.
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(Rock specimens can be collected and analysed further in the lab). A clinometer will be used to determine the angle of dip as this gives angle readings to a high degree of accuracy. A sedimentary log will be used because it is a reliable method on which a large amount of data can be stored. NB throughout the trip health and safety must be considered due to the instability of the cliff faces, appropriate safety gear must therefore be used at all times.
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Investigate the relationship between the solid geology and the physical landscape from Ingleton to Thornton Force.
Movement occurred in this area throughout the Carboniferous and are considered to be of the Hercynian Orogency. There may have been further movements in the Tertiary and recently there have been weak earthquakes at Skipton and Settle; these may well have originated on the fault lines. During the Pleistocene period, ice from the North moved over the entire region except possible the summits of Ingleborough and the other Peaks. The dales are great glacial valleys; a legacy of the action on this area.
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Background Information The Devonian was a period of arid deposition. Britain was in the tropical latitudes just south of the equator. Since Britain lay on the southern margin of a continent, the sediments in the North of Britain were deposited on land. This is irrelevant for the southern half of Britain where this investigation is centred on. The sediments in this part came from the large rivers. This is evident from the ripple marks and the other features associated with a fluvial environment.
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Construct two Graphic Log Sections, one on the eastern exposure (ST 3375 6645) and one at the western exposure (ST 3245 6605) of the Carboniferous Limestones and volcanic rock exposed in the low, coastal cliffs - compare the two.
The problem was that the surface of the rocks could be uneven from erosion causing the data to be not very accurate. Colour With a hammer and wear safety goggles and a hard hat, the colour of the rock was found out by chipping off a small bit from the main bed. This uncovered and clean surface colour free from erosion There were very little problems with this collection; however, some of the rocks were very hard to chip away at.
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The aim of this piece of coursework is to investigate the impact of tourism, and a Park and Ride scheme, on the natural limestone environment of Cheddar.
Maps will also be included so that you can get an idea of where Cheddar is located and how far away it is from certain places. In task 2, various graphs shall be made which will show the information on all the surveys I took in order to help me in my coursework. Task 3 shall include the different views of the people that would be affected if the proposed Park and Ride, shown in the grid reference 493534, would be built.
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Chalk can be found in the southern parts of England, in some parts of Africa, and other places around the planet. Oolitic Limestone from the Jurassic Period (Of or belonging to the geologic time, rock series, or sedimentary deposits of the second period of the Mesozoic Era) is also a porous Limestone, found in the USA, like in Kansas. Oolites are small rounded particles or grains, so named because they look like fish eggs. Oolites commonly are formed by layers of material (usually calcite), which have been deposited around some tiny particle such as a sand grain or fossil fragment and are rolled back and forth in quiet waters.
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In this Essay I will inform you of the social, economic and environmental advantages/ disadvantages which relate to the activity and outcomes of the Limestone Industry.
Using ammonium salts such as ammonium nitrate provides the crops with a high concentration of nitrates but this is decomposed by the plant leaving(Depending on the reactants in the salt.) Sulphur, Nitric and other harmful Acids building up in the soil, thus reduces the pH of the chemicals surrounding the crops below pH7, which in turn can substantially stunt the growth and health of the crop and eventually kill it. It also contaminates and poisons animals and drinking water since the acids are washed away into the ground and into Rivers and Lakes.
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Describe and explain how marine and sub aerial processes have formed the sequence of landforms at Stairhole, Lulworth Cove and Warbarrow bay.
Hard Purbeck stone was once the front line of defence against the sea however little now remains. The little that does remain has protected the land sufficiently behind it creating headlands. Also found here are Portland limestone which due to it's massive lithology is also very resistant. The steep angle of dip away from the sea also gives the sea a wall like quality.
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It seemed like an endless journey from the hectic city to the pleasant atmosphere of the country, the landscape forever changing until all their seemed to be where field after field with houses dotted about in tiny villages, there lights twinkling in the pitch starless sky. Long gone all the grey featureless multi-storey buildings of the city. I must have fallen asleep and was woken by the whining purr of the engine coming to a slow stop. There in front of me was the most wonderful sight, inky blue waves tossing, tumbling and caressing the grey rugged rocks and gently tickling and teasing the golden sand.
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Magmas that reach the surface of the Earth in volcanoes cool quickly, forming fine-grained extrusive volcanic rocks. If the rock is cooled extremely rapidly a volcanic glass results, where no crystals have had time to form. Rocks forming mid- point within the Earth form medium- grained hypabyssal rocks. These are intrusive, that is they are forced into existing rocks. Crystallisation also takes place very slowly deep within the earth's crusts, to form coarse-grained plutonic rocks. These are also intrusive. Coarse= * > 5mm, and easily visible with the naked eye. * They form at plutonic depth- with slow cooling rate.
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