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AS and A Level: Rocks & Weathering
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Can Geologists Save the Planet? Geologists have made many discoveries in the past and continue to today at an ever-increasing rate.
The first recorded person to discover any geological concepts was Herodotus (500BC). He observed how the Nile deposited silt, but he believed that most features of the earth were formed as a result of short but violent processes. It was not until the 4th Century BC that Aristotle made his observations, that these geological features were in fact the result of change over vast amounts of time.
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The coarse material scratches the surface and the finer material polishes the surface. The material caught in the glacier is eroded into a fine rock flour which gives glacial melt water its milky appearance. 6b) Assess the relative importance of the factors influencing rates of glacial erosion. There are several factors affecting the rates of glacial erosion including: presence of basal debris, debris size and shape, relative hardness of particles and bedrock, ice thickness and the velocity of ice. Though a very important factor in erosion not all glaciers have a lot of basal debris.
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Erosion and weathering Scree: lime stone tends to erode along the joints due to freeze thaw, this causes the parts to break off and fall to the bottom of the rock face to join the rest of the scree. Terraces: Limestone terraces are exposed bedding planes. Terraces are formed when limestone is eroded along joints and bedding planes on the scarp slope. Blocks of limestone are removed leaving the terracing. Limestone pavements: Where limestone outcrops at the top a hill, limestone pavements will form.
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A figure that is set to rise within the next five years, following the recent government spending policy. This policy has outlined plans to put �180 billion into improving roads, hospitals and schools, to all of which limestone will be a necessity. However there is only so much limestone you can take out of the hills, mountains and idyllic countryside's of Britain before you cause irreversible damage and disfigurement to the landscape. Many of the current and planned quarries stand upon national parks, areas of outstanding natural beauty that are visited by thousands of people every year.
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Sandstone - It has more than 1 mineral as there are different particles visible, it's very grainy and it feels hard although you can crumble some off if you rub hard. Basalt - It has more than 1 mineral, it is very hard and it also looks very hardwearing. Mudstone - It has 1 mineral, it is quite smooth, it feels very dusty and muddy, if you rub the rock moderately it will start to crumble. Also it is not very rough or hardwearing.
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Why Is It Important As A Building Material? Limestone is very popular in architecture. Limestone is readily available and it is relatively easy to cut in specific shapes or blocks or even for more extensive and elaborate carving in which there is precision design. It is also long-lasting and it is still tough even in exposure. Limestone used for construction is also good in humid and hot environments. What Are The Drawbacks Of Using It In Buildings?
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One major factor is walker's boots because they kick away and break down the surface but this is by means no means the only factor. It is not only the walkers that cause the erosion the bike and the heavy footfall of fell runners who can also break the ground up. It is not only human impact that makes the footpaths wear down, the livestock has been a primary source of some of the most serious surface on the surface because there feet break down the surface
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One of the main factors that is involved in the creation of soil is parent material. As I said early this is where soil develops from an underlying rock. The rock type usually makes a large difference to the soils colour, depth, texture, drainage and mineral content (nutrients) thus resulting in a difference of different soil qualities. Another one of the five main factors is the climate in which the soil resides. Climate determines the type of soil at a global scale. The distribution of world soil types corresponds closely to patterns of climate and vegetation.
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Chalk can be found in the southern parts of England, in some parts of Africa, and other places around the planet. Oolitic Limestone from the Jurassic Period (Of or belonging to the geologic time, rock series, or sedimentary deposits of the second period of the Mesozoic Era) is also a porous Limestone, found in the USA, like in Kansas. Oolites are small rounded particles or grains, so named because they look like fish eggs. Oolites commonly are formed by layers of material (usually calcite), which have been deposited around some tiny particle such as a sand grain or fossil fragment and are rolled back and forth in quiet waters.
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Describe and explain how marine and sub aerial processes have formed the sequence of landforms at Stairhole, Lulworth Cove and Warbarrow bay.
Hard Purbeck stone was once the front line of defence against the sea however little now remains. The little that does remain has protected the land sufficiently behind it creating headlands. Also found here are Portland limestone which due to it's massive lithology is also very resistant. The steep angle of dip away from the sea also gives the sea a wall like quality.
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Acid Test This simple test helps you tell rocks that are made of calcite from similar rocks made of other minerals. All you need is some white vinegar. (If your parents or teacher can get it, some weak hydrochloric acid will give you more dramatic results.) Put a large drop of vinegar (or a small drop of acid) on your rock and watch what happens for a minute or so. If the rock is made of calcite, small bubbles will start to form inside the drop of vinegar.
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[Diagrams] Malham village has a number of attractions and conveniences like B&Bs such as Beck hall, Dale house and the Buck inn (which is a Pub and Hotel). They have campsites for example there is one at the rear of the Townhead barn. Malham has a few Ca?fes which has a very good value for meals and drinks they are called Olde Barn Cafe and The buck inn but there are a few more with hotels and campsites attached to them.
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Unless there is an impermeable (liquids cannot pass through) cap rock, the oil will seep up to the surface. Gas is even less dense than oil, and so often, gas is found above the crude oil. This diagram shows the separation of gas, oil and water. They are trapped between impermeable rocks, which have formed an anticline. Locating the oil Usually, crude oil is found underground in reservoirs called 'traps'. A common type of trap is an anticline. An anticline is when the layers of rock fold, causing an upwards curve. Crude oil is often found in these anticlines.
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The pressure from these plates folded the rocks and formed a ridge and trough which runs from East to West. The sandstone that lies beneath most of Exmoor produces well drained soil, whilst areas that lie above the slates are wet, peaty and boggy. In the centre of Exmoor there is a plateau which is now open moorland, to the north the erosion of the Bristol Channel has produced cliffs and an area that is defined as a Heritage coast.
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Pre-modern causes of erosion theories Sand: Almost all of the theories as to how the sphinx was eroded have reference to sand being a contributing factor. This is mainly due to that most archeologists agree that most of the sphinxes life, it has been covered in sand. Also sand has been around the sphinx for almost all of its life increasing the chance of sand being picked up and thrown into the sphinx by the wind. Ground water erosion: From looking at the paws of the Sphinx archeologists believe that ground water caused some erosion to the sphinx.
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I will collect samples of each rock that I will sieve in the laboratory. 5. I will describe the sedimentary structures and textures present and will use sketches to help. 6. I will conduct a pebble survey on the scree slope at the base of the cliff by walking down it backwards and collecting the stone in front of me, measuring its size and shape and then repeating that until I have 20 samples. 7. I will conduct an analysis of the pebble layer in order to determine its environment of deposition by selecting a random sample of 20 stones and recording their maximum length and the orientation of that length.
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Sandstone If they have: - * Ripple marks - formed by waves * Discontinuous Deposition - gap in the fossil record layer could have been eroded. * Size of Particles - smaller particles take longer to settle. So clay or slate tells you water was quiet. Bigger stuff like pebbles were dumped by fast flowing water. * Rocks are found: Tilted, folded, fractured or upside down. This shows earth is unstable. Metamorphic Rocks pushed deep underground where they are compressed and heated.
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There are two types of erosion that can occur at the coast, these are: 1. Sub-aerial processes (cliff face processes)- These are erosional processes that take place above sea level, affecting the parts of the coastal zone that are not directly influenced by the sea. The processes included in sub-aerial erosion are: * Freeze-thaw * Salt crystallization * Chemical weathering * Biological weathering * Human Activity * Mass movement 2. Marine processes (cliff base processes)- These are erosional processes that occur when the waves collide with the cliff face, these processes determine the main shape of the coast, but not all.
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Set up the apparatus as shown in the above diagram with the board at 35 degrees. 2. Put syrup into the beaker using a spoon to transport the syrup from the jar to the beaker. 3. Mix sugar strands into syrup using a spoon. 4. Put mixture of syrup and sugar strands onto the spoon. 5. Transport the mixture from the beaker onto the board by pouring the mixture onto the top of the board from the spoon.
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It ranges in hardness and texture from very soft porous varieties to harder close-grained types. Chalk is particularly common in strata of the Cretaceous period (Latin creta, "chalk"). Large deposits are found in Iowa, Texas, and Arkansas in the United States, and in the British Isles. Cretaceous chalk is exposed in the White Cliffs of Dover on either side of the English Channel. Chalk is a type of limestone that does not develop karst scenery. However calcium carbonate levels in chalk streams have been examined demonstrating that carbonation occurs at a faster rate than in some other limestones, due to this the rock structure is not strong enough to support the formation of underground tunnels and caves.
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They are rich in iron and magnesium and usually associated with constructive plate margins. The pale minerals in igneous rocks are called felsic minerals. These include feldspars, quartz and muscovite mica. They are rich in silica and aluminium and associated with continental areas. The colour index measures the proportion of ferromagnesian or mafic minerals present in the rock. Rocks with less than 30% of dark mineral are pale and described as leucocratic. Rocks with 30-60% are mesocratic and tend to be grey in colour. Those with over 60% mafic minerals are known as melanocratic.
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The particles are so small that they can be easily carried long distances by water or the wind. A handful of clay picked up anywhere may contain particles formed at different times from different igneous rocks. Tourism Igneous can help the local economy by creating a tourist attraction, for example the Cascade Range extends about 700 miles from northern California through Oregon and Washington into British Columbia. The crest of the range lies from 100 to 150 miles from the Pacific coast.
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Apparatus: Glass beaker Cork Hydrochloric acid Calcium Carbonate Glass bowl Stopwatch Method: 1) Collect 1 solid piece, 2 solid pieces, 3 solid pieces and powdered limestone all weighing 3g each. 2) Place 50 ml of 2m hydrochloric acid in a beaker and add the 1 solid piece of limestone. 3) Put the cork in top of the beaker and start the stopwatch. 4)
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Both granite and carboniferous limestone are vulnerable to weathering, as they have air gaps, which water can penetrate into. Carboniferous limestone (sedimentary) contains horizontal bedding planes, which separates different layers in a sedimentary rock and also vertical joints at right angles to the bedding planes. Whereas granite has cracks which has resulted from high-pressure release or contraction on cooling within it. The subsequent freezing and thawing along these lines of weakness (in both rock types) cause frost shattering. Permeability is the rate at which water maybe stored within a rock, allowing the free passage and the interfusion of fluids. The primary permeability depends upon the size, shape, and texture of the rock and the arrangement of its mineral particles.
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As Mitcham Common itself is far to large to study as a whole area, I have chosen a certain part of Mitcham Common to help me collect data more effectivly and to allow me to complete my investigation in the given time.
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