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AS and A Level: Rocks & Weathering
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It is also long lasting and stands up well to exposure. However, it is a very heavy material, making it impractical for tall buildings, and relatively expensive as a building material. Physical Properties of Limestone Hardness 3 to 4 on Mohs Scale (out of 10) Density 2.5 to 2.65 Kg/m3 Compressive Strength 1800 to 2100 Kg/cm2 Water Absorption Less than 1% Porosity Quite low Weather Impact Resistant Stepping pyramid build of limestone Limestone landscape also called Karst is a unique landscape formed by the underground erosion of rocks such as limestone and marble that dissolve in water.
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So roads and railway lines can be constructed, linking major towns together. For example the A591, which is the main road through the Lake District, follows a glacial trough. The Penrith to Cockermouth railway, now dismantled, followed glacial valleys. So glacial valleys can provide natural routeways however they do have a disadvantage to transport. It is very difficult to find a routeway between parallel valleys, so if two settlements are in parallel valleys, it is likely that to connect the two it would mean going round the valley. Tourism is hugely affected by glacially eroded landforms.
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It mostly contains calcium carbonate as seashells are made from calcium carbonate. It is usually white or grey in colour. The original shells are mainly crushed down how some fossilised shells can still be found in limestone. Mudstone, which is also known as shale, is formed from mud. Mud is basically finer particles of sand cemented together due to heat and pressure. Mudstone is often grey in colour and unlike other rocks; it tends to split onto its original layers very easily. Coal is a fossil fuel formed from the remains of plants and vegetation.
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There were a number of deep cracks and at the bottom was some debris and fallen rocks. At one side of the quarry there was a dipping bed. The angle recorded was approximately 15�. There were a few trees and some plants growing on the rocks. As previously stated the rocks at this position were limestone, with a high calcium carbonate content. In addition to this there was chert present; there were visible hard, white bands of silica. The dip and strike was taken at the dip at this position. It was calculated to be 060/15�/North-North West.
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Investigate the relationship between the solid geology and the physical landscape from Ingleton to Thornton Force.
Movement occurred in this area throughout the Carboniferous and are considered to be of the Hercynian Orogency. There may have been further movements in the Tertiary and recently there have been weak earthquakes at Skipton and Settle; these may well have originated on the fault lines. During the Pleistocene period, ice from the North moved over the entire region except possible the summits of Ingleborough and the other Peaks. The dales are great glacial valleys; a legacy of the action on this area.
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The aim of this piece of coursework is to investigate the impact of tourism, and a Park and Ride scheme, on the natural limestone environment of Cheddar.
Maps will also be included so that you can get an idea of where Cheddar is located and how far away it is from certain places. In task 2, various graphs shall be made which will show the information on all the surveys I took in order to help me in my coursework. Task 3 shall include the different views of the people that would be affected if the proposed Park and Ride, shown in the grid reference 493534, would be built.
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It seemed like an endless journey from the hectic city to the pleasant atmosphere of the country, the landscape forever changing until all their seemed to be where field after field with houses dotted about in tiny villages, there lights twinkling in the pitch starless sky. Long gone all the grey featureless multi-storey buildings of the city. I must have fallen asleep and was woken by the whining purr of the engine coming to a slow stop. There in front of me was the most wonderful sight, inky blue waves tossing, tumbling and caressing the grey rugged rocks and gently tickling and teasing the golden sand.
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Magmas that reach the surface of the Earth in volcanoes cool quickly, forming fine-grained extrusive volcanic rocks. If the rock is cooled extremely rapidly a volcanic glass results, where no crystals have had time to form. Rocks forming mid- point within the Earth form medium- grained hypabyssal rocks. These are intrusive, that is they are forced into existing rocks. Crystallisation also takes place very slowly deep within the earth's crusts, to form coarse-grained plutonic rocks. These are also intrusive. Coarse= * > 5mm, and easily visible with the naked eye. * They form at plutonic depth- with slow cooling rate.
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Rocks with large and coarse-grained particles were probably deposited under active conditions, such as on a stormy beach S. Rocks with smaller and fine-grained particles were probably deposited under quiet conditions, such as in a lake or deep sea. S. Rocks * Sedimentary rock layers are often found tiled, folded, fractured (faulted) and sometimes even turned upside down which shows us that the Earth's crust is unstable and has been subjected to very large forces. * At the Earth's surface, younger sedimentary rocks usually lie on top of older rocks. * They often contain fossils of dead remains or plants and animals.
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James Hutton (1727-1797), the eminent 18th century gentleman farmer and founder of modern geoscience, authored the concept of the rock cycle, which depicts the interrelationships between igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.
At higher temperatures, metamorphic (or any other rock type) rocks may be partially melted, and crystallization of this melt will create igneous rocks. Uplift and erosion can expose all rock types at the surface, re-initiating the cycle. THE ROCK CYCLE This tectonic rock cycle is a clickable map (19/07/95 -map still under construction) that offers more detailed descriptions of the rock types found within their tectonic settings, with links to more detailed information about each subject If we examine the rock cycle in terms of plate tectonics, as depicted in the figure above, we see that mafic (tholeiitic)
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Limestone is formed from sea shells. Mostly formed with calcium carbonate, which is grey or white coloured. Mudstone is formed from mud, which means is finer particles than sand. It is dark grey in color and is easily split into separate particles again. Metamorphic Rock The first type of rock is metamorphic. This is caused by the action of heat and pressure on sedimentary rocks over long periods of time. When the earth moves it can shift all types of rock deep underground. Beneath the ground they are compressed and heated. The mineral structure and texture will begin to change.
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Wind is an important agent of Deposition and transportation. It's role as an Eroder remains questionable.
From mountains like the Ahaggar radiate systems of valleys which could have been cut only by running water, but which are now completely dry and choked by invading sand-dunes. There is considerable biological evidence of 'relict faunas' like tropical fish and small crocodiles in Saharan waterholes, and rock carvings indicating that big game of the savanna type once existed in areas now completely sterile. It is reasonable to conclude that many deserts are fossil landscapes formed under processes now not active. (All that is now happening at present is extremely slow weathering, and minor modification of the surface by wind).
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Wind is an important agent of transport and deposition. It's effectiveness as an eroder remains questionable. Discuss.
Transport is effective and important here in that in 1km of air, 900 tonnes of sand can be entrained. In some case red dust from the Sahara has been carried northwards and deposited as 'red rain' over parts of Britain and has been found in places as far away as Hawaii. Dust Storms such as the above have increased as drought has intensified and satellite pictures have shown the considerable extent to which they have developed. The vast sand seas are obviously attributable to wind. For saltation to occur, wind speeds must exceed the threshold velocity (the speed required to initiate grain movement)
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Prediction I predict that the lower the viscosity the faster the lava will flow down the slope and the lava with a higher viscosity will travel slower. I have predicted this because the free flowing lava acts all most like a liquid, the particles in the lava have weaker bonds which are more flexible and easily broken. In the more viscous (thicker) lava the particles will have more bonds which are much stronger, making the lava act more like a solid.
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