• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Plantation agriculture

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Geog Summer Assignment- Essay Question 3 Stella Kwok (7) Plantation agriculture is a kind of commercial arable farming in the world. It is especially important in humid tropics with luxuriant growth of vegetation. Its economic effectiveness is always emphasized, bringing both positive and negative impacts. In recent decades, crop diversification is introduced and the ecological balance of the natural environment is greatly conserved. Plantation agriculture refers to the growing of cash crops on large foreign owned estates in countries of tropical environment. It is usually practiced in a large scale with monoculture, in which only a certain type of plant is dominant. Take Papua New Guinea as an example, in the area, cacao, coffee and rubber are mainly grown in the region for export to other countries. Under this kind of farming, there are positive impacts to the economy. Firstly, due to its large scale of operation and being export-oriented in Papua New Guinea, the supply of products is regular and of uniformly high quality. ...read more.

Middle

The farm productivity is increased as well. As people can earn more income from this kind of farming, this stimulates the rate of urbanization, hence the development of infrastructure and improvement of public facilities, such as roads, railways, ports, towns, schools, hospitals and the supply of electricity and water. As a result, the living standard of the labour is greatly improved. Despite the economic benefits, plantation farming somehow brings negative impacts to Papua New Guinea. First is the reliance upon the protected markets in Australia. At present, about one-third of the copra, 40 percent of the coffee, most of the cocoa and rubber is exported to Australia, which is assigned to admit duty free. In return, Papua New Guinea has to pay taxes for any imports. This leads to outflow of capital to foreign countries because this kind of farming is highly export-oriented. Second is the problem of labour. Plantations require large amount of cheap labour, but the wage rate is progressively higher because of the rising living standard and commercialization of the country. ...read more.

Conclusion

This in turn reduces the use of pesticides. Hence, the chance of stream pollution is smaller, the sea organisms will not be poisoned or suffocated so easily, the nutrient flow can be more stable. There will be greater diversity of species of biomass, so the ecosystem will be more stable. Furthermore, diversification of crops increases the vegetation cover. There will be less surface runoff and soil erosion, yet infiltration increases. The nutrients of the soil can be preserved. Crop diversification also reduces the exhaustion of certain type of nutrients, fertility can be maintained and thus the use of fertilizer will be less common as well. Climatically, because of less crop failures, the amount of biomass increases. The evapotranspiration rate and wind speed can be more stable, so the microclimate can be maintained constant, the risk of global warming will not be getting serious so fast. In conclusion, plantation of cash crops is significant in Papua New Guinea for economic development. Though crop diversification may not be as profitable as plantation agriculture, ecological environment should not be ignored. In long-term, diversification of crops is a good way to safeguard the natural environment and brings more stable income to the farmers as well. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Production - Location & Change section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Production - Location & Change essays

  1. Discuss the Advantages and Disadvantages of the use of Fertilisers and Pesticides in Agriculture

    and composted crop residues to maintain soil fertility rather than artificial fertilisers from outside the farm system.9 They contain the main elements found in inorganic fertilisers (NPK), but in organic compounds such as urea, cellulose, lipids and organic acids. Plants are unable to make use of these organic materials in

  2. The Role and Importance of Agriculture In the Carribean. Organisations involved in its ...

    Also, the high temperatures make it more difficult to successfully rear some breeds of livestock in the Caribbean, especially those which originate in temperate areas such as Europe. Topography Topography refers to the relief or the shape of the land.

  1. Major innovations in agriculture have always proved to be controversial. With reference to recent ...

    The food surplus led to dumping of food products in LEDCs which create negative effects for farmers and create problems in the food market. In response to this, the CAP was reformed by breaking the link between subsides and level of production to encourage farmers to produce in response to real demand rather than for the subsidies available.

  2. "Can the theories that Alfred D. Chandler developed in his book 'Scale and Scope: ...

    As compelling as these predictions seem though, one must keep in mind that they are based on a rather superficial analysis of evidence and especially on a less than certain prediction of future growth industries. 7. CONCLUSION The analysis in this paper has shown two main things.

  1. Assignment on Computer Integrated Manufacturing

    One major benefit of CIM is the reduction of cost; or rather the reduction in the amount of wasted work. Pioneer Magnetics approach was to look at the non-value-added activities of their business and see if they are worth the cost of doing.

  2. The Relationships Between Human Health and Agriculture

    crops, as well as increasing soil fertility in some areas of the world and increase the harvesting opportunities. Indeed, irrigated land makes up only 18% of the world's total agricultural landmass, but contributes to 40% of the Earth's food7. Fertilizers and pesticides have also proved indispensable for plant growth and warding off disease-causing insects.

  1. Modern Intensive Agriculture: Impacts on then Environment.

    Crop losses from insect pests can be staggering resulting in devastating financial loss for farmers and starvation in developing countries. Farmers typically use chemical pesticides annually. Consumers do not wish to eat food that has been treated with pesticides because of potential health hazards.

  2. Opportunities in the big emerging markets (BEMs) such as India, Brazil and China.

    in China's manufacturing sector has been the largest among all other economic sectors receiving FDI, both in annual FDI inflows and in the aggregate FDI stocks. In general, the accumulated FDI in China's manufacturing sector on a contracted basis from 1983 to 1995 accounted for 57 percent of the total accumulated FDI in China.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work